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Kurtis Pankow, Amber D. Mosewich and Nicholas L. Holt

argued that it is the athletes’ interpretations of these behaviors that affects leadership outcomes, not the behaviors themselves. Studies including coach observations and athlete perceptions would make a valuable contribution to the field. These limitations notwithstanding, this study makes several

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Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim and Ceri Diss

behavior), and physical (e.g., superior performance, enhanced body awareness). Adversity is seen as a relational state between individuals and their environment reflective of hardship or suffering that incorporates stressors, cognitions, and affect ( Howells & Fletcher, 2015 ). However, while some

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Florence Lebrun, Àine MacNamara, Dave Collins and Sheelagh Rodgers

psychopathology, in the same way that mental health should not be defined as simply the absence of psychopathology ( Henriksen et al., 2019 ; Keyes, 2005 ); this understanding is important as subclinical levels of mental disorders can negatively affect one’s functioning and performance ( Gouttebarge et al., 2018

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Shannon Gadbois, Anne Bowker, Linda Rose-Krasnor and Leanne Findlay

behavioral measures of participation. Furthermore, psychological engagement has been increasingly recognized as a multidimensional construct. For example, Rose-Krasnor ( 2009 ) proposed that youths’ engagement in activities seems to arise from their emotions (affective component), thoughts (cognitive

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Andy Gillham and Craig Stone

” was the second-most-common descriptor used during the interviews regarding movements feeling effortless. P-5 described this aspect by indicating, “It was just as easy as breathing. I never felt so in control. I could just consistently affect each and every play.” Further echoing this easy and

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Elmer A. Castillo and Graig M. Chow

an alternative to subjective performance measures to assess behavior change. Third, due to the gender skew of the sample, exploration of gender as a moderating variable that may affect potential pre–post differences on the outcome variables was not feasible. Future research should involve a large

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Fernando Santos, Leisha Strachan, Daniel Gould, Paulo Pereira and Cláudia Machado

athletes). Athlete leaders have different levels of experience, skills, and goals and can affect their teammates’ overall performance (e.g.,  Fransen et al., 2016 ). It is necessary to recognize that athlete leaders have the potential to influence PLSD outcomes and life-skills development. Previous

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Andrew G. Wood, Jamie B. Barker, Martin Turner and Peter Thomson

irrational beliefs in game settings. Furthermore, it would be prudent to explore the mechanisms by which athletes’ beliefs (irrational/rational) affect the appraisal process (e.g., demand vs. resource appraisals; Jones, Meijen, McCarthy, & Sheffield, 2009 ) using both self-reported and psychophysiological

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Shani Pitcho-Prelorentzos and Michal Mahat-Shamir

almost totally dependent on state funding for their development and existence ( Mizrahi et al., 2008 ). Obviously, this affects training conditions and chances of potential fulfilment for Israeli athletes ( Galily, 2007 ). Moreover, funding is mostly invested in programs aimed at achieving athletic

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Rory J. Mack, Jeff D. Breckon, Paul D. O’Halloran and Joanne Butt

components) to support an athlete who is experiencing a drop in performance due to irrational or intrusive thoughts. Such a case study could outline the processes of integrating CBT with MI, determine the impact of this on the therapeutic alliance, and affect the athlete’s well-being and sport performance