This study examined the relative effectiveness of various cognitive techniques on the basketball free throw shooting performance of young athletes. Forty boys (ages 10.2–12.4 years) who were subjectively rated as good free throw shooters by staff members at a 6-week summer sports camp were randomly assigned to one of four training conditions. All initially performed 20 baseline trials of the free throw shot with a 45-sec intershot interval. After the last baseline trial the boys in each group received instructions and practiced their respective preshot techniques. The next day they received a second instructional period followed by a series of 10 free throws. During the last 15 seconds of the 45-sec intershot interval on these trials, subjects engaged in their respective preshot activity. An analysis of covariance was used to determine group differences in free throw percentage during the test trials, with free throw percentage during baseline trials used as the covariate. The results suggested that mental imagery combined with arousal adjustment is a useful preshot cognitive strategy that young athletes may use to enhance their free throw shooting performance.
Craig A. Wrisberg and Mark H. Anshel
Daniel Gould, Shane Murphy, Vance Tammen and Jerry May
The present study was designed to identify (a) the backgrounds of U.S. Olympic sport psychology consultants, (b) the services they provide, (c) their own evaluation of those services, and (d) the problems they encounter as well as their recommendations for improving programs. Forty-four of 47 sport psychology consultants who were identified as working with sports affiliated with the U.S. Olympic Committee from 1984 to 1988 completed extensive surveys. Results revealed that the consultants represented 20 sports and were well trained in sport psychology. They were most frequently involved in individual athlete consultations, athlete group seminars, and individual coach consultations. Intervention techniques used most often included goal setting, relaxation training, arousal regulation, imagery-visualization, and self-talk. The consultants also indicated that the most frequently experienced problems were lack of program funding, poor scheduling and logistics, poor interaction with coaches, and lack of time to work with athletes. The need to individualize sport psychology strategies with athletes was identified as the most meaningful recommendation for the future.
Stuart D.R. Galloway, Matthew J.E. Lott and Lindsay C. Toulouse
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of timing of preexercise carbohydrate feeding (Part A) and carbohydrate concentration (Part B) on short-duration high-intensity exercise capacity. In Part A, 17 males, and in Part B 10 males, performed a peak power output (PPO) test, two familiarization trials at 90% of PPO, and 4 (for Part A) or 3 (for Part B) experimental trials involving exercise capacity tests at 90% PPO. In Part A, the 4 trials were conducted following ingestion of a 6.4% carbohydrate/electrolyte sports drink ingested 30 (C30) or 120 (C120) minutes before exercise, or a flavor-matched placebo administered either 30 (P30) or 120 (P120) minutes before exercise. In Part B, the 3 trials were performed 30 min after ingestion of 0%, 2% or 12% carbohydrate solutions. All trials were performed in a double-blind cross-over design following and overnight fast. Dietary intake and activity in the 2 days before trials was recorded and replicated on each visit. Glucose, lactate, heart rate, and mood/arousal were recorded at intervals during the trials. In Part A, C30 produced the greatest exercise capacity (mean ± SD; 9.0 ± 1.9 min, p < .01) compared with all other trials (7.7 ± 1.5 min P30, 8.0 ± 1.7 min P120, 7.9 ± 1.9 min C120). In Part B, exercise capacity (min) following ingestion of the 2% solution (9.2 ± 2.1) compared with 0% (8.2 ± 0.7) and 12% (8.0 ± 1.3) solutions approached significance (p = .09). This study provides new evidence to suggest that timing of carbohydrate intake is important in short duration high-intensity exercise tasks, but a concentration effect requires further exploration.
Romain Meeusen and Phil Watson
It is clear that the cause of fatigue is complex, infuenced by both events occurring in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that exercise-induced changes in serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations contribute to the onset of fatigue during prolonged exercise. Serotonin has been linked to fatigue because of its documented role in sleep, feelings of lethargy and drowsiness, and loss of motivation, whereas increased DA and NA neurotransmission favors feelings of motivation, arousal, and reward. 5-HT has been shown to increase during acute exercise in running rats and to remain high at the point of fatigue. DA release is also elevated during exercise but appears to fall at exhaustion, a response that may be important in the fatigue process. The rates of 5-HT and DA/NA synthesis largely depend on the peripheral availability of the amino acids tryptophan (TRP) and tyrosine (TYR), with increased brain delivery increasing serotonergic and DA/NA activity, respectively. TRP, TYR, and the branched-chained amino acids (BCAAs) use the same transporter to pass through the blood-brain barrier, meaning that the plasma concentration ratio of these amino acids is thought to be a very important marker of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacological manipulation of these neurotransmitter systems has provided support for an important role of the CNS in the development of fatigue. Work conducted over the last 20 y has focused on the possibility that manipulation of neurotransmitter precursors may delay the onset of fatigue. Although there is evidence that BCAA (to limit 5-HT synthesis) and TYR (to elevate brain DA/NA) ingestion can influence perceived exertion and some measures of mental performance, the results of several apparently well-controlled laboratory studies have yet to demonstrate a clear positive effect on exercise capacity or performance. There is good evidence that brain neurotransmitters can play a role in the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise, but nutritional manipulation of these systems through the provision of amino acids has proven largely unsuccessful.
Gorden Sudeck, Stephanie Jeckel and Tanja Schubert
dimensions of pleasantness/unpleasantness, energetic arousal, and tense arousal/calmness. Despite the ongoing discussion about the best way to conceptualize and measure affective phenomena related to PA ( Ekkekakis & Zenko, 2016 ), Liao et al. ( 2015 ) summarized 12 studies that address the association
Phillip D. Tomporowski and Daniel M. Pendleton
control participants when measured 24 hr later. Because memory test performance did not differ between the exercise conditions, the researchers proposed that the level of physiological arousal rather than the complexity of the physical activity explained mnemonic benefits. Likewise, Lundbye
Marcus Börjesson, Carolina Lundqvist, Henrik Gustafsson and Paul Davis
traditionally in the sport psychology literature has been regarded as an unpleasant emotion comprised of cognitive (worry) and somatic (arousal) components ( Davidson & Schwartz, 1976 ; Lazarus, 1991 ; Woodman & Hardy, 2001 ). Worry in competitive situations generally revolves around self-doubt relating to
Chris G. Harwood and Sam N. Thrower
arousal) across different tasks, levels, and stages of development in the context of youth sport. Self-Talk A number of studies have explored the impact of self-talk interventions on young athletes’ performance (e.g., Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2008 , 2009 ; Hatzigeorgiadis, Galanis, Zourbanos
Wonseok Jang, Yong Jae Ko, Daniel L. Wann and Daehwan Kim
aliveness and energy” ( Ryan & Frederick, 1997 , p. 529), and it is similar to a sense of vigor and positive energetic arousal ( McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971 ). However, vitality differs from simply being aroused as vitality is only associated with the positive energy of arousal ( Ryan & Frederick, 1997
, sport psychologists need to keep in mind that arousal levels during competitive play are elevated. If arousal is further increased—for example, through provocation by an opponent—this could have a negative effect on cognitive control (e.g., Zillmann, 1988 ) and result in an angry aggressive physical