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Pooja S. Tandon, Tyler Sasser, Erin S. Gonzalez, Kathryn B. Whitlock, Dimitri A. Christakis and Mark A. Stein

-onset difficulties. 29 The regulation of arousal and sleep also plays a restorative role in brain functioning 11 and is linked to poor executive functioning. Parents of children with ADHD may have difficulty in fostering healthy sleep habits and limiting sedentary behaviors such as screen time, for various reasons

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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

such as motivation, arousal, attention, stress responses, and motor control. 26 Microdialysis experiments in rodents observed that most neurotransmitter systems return to baseline levels within a few hours after intensive and/or exhaustive treadmill exercise. 27 When there is an insufficient output

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

assertiveness and cognitive processing, enhancing decision making and skill execution. 12 Testosterone may be regulated by glucocorticoid hormones, such as cortisol, and vice versa. 12 Cortisol, generally considered a “stress” hormone, in a sporting context may be arousing and can lead to increased aggressive

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Enzo Hollville, Vincent Le Croller, Yoshihiro Hirasawa, Rémi Husson, Giuseppe Rabita and Franck Brocherie

-intensity exercise may be offset by positive cognitive arousal, resulting in near-baseline performance rather than worsening outcome. 36 Altogether, this suggests a complex interaction between physiological and psychological/cognitive function to preserve technical skills such as passing or shooting under fatigued

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Junxin Li, Binbin Yang, Miranda Varrasse, Xiaopeng Ji, MaoChun Wu, Manman Li and Kun Li

diseases, and arthritis. We also assessed participants’ sleep hygiene using the Chinese version of Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale ( Lin, Cheng, Yang, & Hsu, 2007 ). The Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale is a 30-item self-rating questionnaire measuring participants’ sleep hygiene practice of arousal

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Ian Rollo, Oliver C. Witard and Stuart D. R. Galloway

task outcome is more likely to be influenced by arousal ( McMorris & Graydon, 1997 ). Thus, it is intuitive that performing the passing test with the nondominant foot required a greater allocation of CNS resources than when performing the passing test with the dominant foot. It also has been proposed

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Benita J. Lalor, Shona L. Halson, Jacqueline Tran, Justin G. Kemp and Stuart J. Cormack

using the postmatch period as a time to socialize. 20 Another possible explanation is that the psychophysiological effects of the match (eg, arousal, pain) may have delayed the drive to go to bed. 27 Providing sleep education to improve bedtime habits and encouraging players to bring forward their

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Heidi R. Thornton, Jace A. Delaney, Grant M. Duthie and Ben J. Dascombe

.20). The exact mechanism for this affected sleep remains unclear, although it is suggested to be caused by a heightened physiological arousal that elevates heart rate and increases metabolic function 10 or through an accumulation of exercise-induced muscle damage that increases muscle soreness. 11

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen Wallman and Georgina Kent

-0281 34. Eccles R . Role of cold receptors and menthol in thirst, the drive to breathe and arousal . Appetite . 2000 ; 34 ( 1 ): 29 – 35 . PubMed doi:10.1006/appe.1999.0291 10.1006/appe.1999.0291 10744889 35. Lafrenz AJ , Wingo JE , Ganio MS , Cureton KJ . Effect of ambient temperature on

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Julie K. Black, Anna C. Whittaker and George M. Balanos

sleep disorder called obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; Al Lawati, Patel, & Ayas, 2009 ; Banno & Kryger, 2005 ). OSA is caused by upper airway collapse resulting in repeated incidence of airflow cessation (apnea) or airflow reduction (hypopnea), and consequently leads to arousals from sleep, alongside