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Mallory Mann and Vikki Krane

). Accordingly, research has found that lesbian athletes have faced challenges and barriers based on their assumed and/or acknowledged sexual orientation (e.g.,  Griffin, 1998 ; Kauer & Krane, 2006 ; Krane, 1997 ; Melton & Cunningham, 2012 ). All female athletes contend with the stereotype that masculine

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Lin Yu, Hanhan Xue and Joshua I. Newman

Shanghai. The Shanghai government agencies are very creative and highly service-oriented. For example, international sporting events might face many barriers in other cities when they come to China; whereas in Shanghai those sporting events would easily get accepted and recognized and then gain support

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Patricia Vertinsky

by which we speak to each other and which no barrier… can diminish in communicative power” ( Shawn, 1963 , p. 90). “He was always brimming with ideas,” said Lloyd, “enthusiastically adopting Delsarte’s ‘oppositions,’ ‘parallelisms’ and ‘successions’” ( Lloyd, 1949 , pp 28–9). Singleton ( 2010 ) has

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Matt C. Crockett and Ted Butryn

high price of membership presented a financial barrier to all but those who have disposable incomes or are willing to sacrifice other luxuries. However, this socioeconomic obstacle did not limit the ethnic and racial diversity of the space, which reflected the multiethnic workforce unique to Silicon

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Matthew Lamont and Sheranne Fairley

, one common theme revealed by extant studies is a willingness to push one’s individual limits, and specifically, to push through pain barriers despite risking physical injury ( Allen Collinson & Hockey, 2007 ; Atkinson, 2008 ; McCarville, 2007 ). According to Atkinson ( 2008 ), flirting with pain

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Brian Wilson and Nicolien VanLuijk

“sport journalism for peace” (SJP) possible?’ Wilson ( 2012 ) offered a tentative “yes”—acknowledging on one hand the agency of (sport) journalists (following Hackett, 2006 ), while on the other hand recognizing barriers to doing peace-oriented journalism that exist in the culture and politics of sport

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Gregory A. Cranmer and Sara LaBelle

forwarded as potential barriers to athletes’ reporting of concussion symptoms, including their knowledge and attitudes about concussions, the availability of medical staff, and athletes’ desire to both continue to play and not let their teammates and coaches down ( Chrisman, Quitiquit, & Rivara, 2013

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Matthew Katz, Nefertiti A. Walker and Lauren C. Hindman

their opinions sought. Thus, a designated seat does not guarantee female leaders the same experiences, treatment, or access as their male counterparts. Among the barriers for women seeking leadership positions noted by previous scholars, social processes represent the most salient factor inhibiting the

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Jeffrey J. Martin

, opportunities for special-population youths are limited ( Field & Oates, 2001 ; Martin, 2017 ; Willis et al., 2018 ). Moreover, when opportunities exist there are typically more barriers to participation, such as the child’s disability, inaccessible sport facilities (e.g., no ramps), parental fear and worry

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Fernando Lera-López and Manuel Rapún-Gárate

The purpose of this article is to analyze the sociodemographic and economic determinants underlying sport participation and consumer expenditure on sport. The methodological approach is based on ordered probit models. Empirical results from data obtained by means of a questionnaire survey in Spain indicate the need for different sport management strategies in each of these areas. On the one hand, the results confirm the positive influence of variables such as gender and age, and the negative influence of some professional status categories. Neither low levels of education nor personal income are barriers to the practice of sport. Hence, time availability is a major barrier to expand the base of participants or increase the intensity of participation. On the other hand, consumer expenditure on sport is determined by gender, education, income levels, and some occupational groups.