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Shijun Zhu, Eun-Shim Nahm, Barbara Resnick, Erika Friedmann, Clayton Brown, Jumin Park, Jooyoung Cheon and DoHwan Park

bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D intake, exercise, and bone density screening tests. Discussion forums focused on health behaviors accompanied the learning modules. The booster intervention started right after the end of the Bone Power intervention and continued for 10 months. The booster

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Bareket Falk, Panagiota Klentrou, Neil Armstrong, Thomas Rowland and Han C.G. Kemper

osteoporosis in older age. The first pediatric study in this area was cross sectional and demonstrated that adolescent athletes involved in high-impact type of training, that is, volleyball and basketball, had greater bone density than those involved in nonimpact training, that is, swimming ( 47 ). This study

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Elin Ekblom-Bak, Örjan Ekblom, Gunnar Andersson, Peter Wallin and Björn Ekblom

general, 3 , 4 childhood and adolescence PA might also have important beneficial effects in different domains, for example, bone density. 5 With the alarming reports of increasing childhood/adolescent obesity and declining fitness levels, 6 , 7 studies on the immediate effects on health and disease in

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-31% (a deficit of 481kcal). Over a 6-month period daily energy intake was increased from 1621kcal to 2262kcal. Carbohydrate intake increased from 5.3 g/kg/bw to 6.9 g/kg/bw, protein 1.4 g/kg/bw to 3.1 g/kg/bw and fat was 0.8 g/kg/bw throughout the recorded period. Bone density T-Score increased (+2

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Maria Kosma, David Buchanan and Jan Hondzinski

benefits included increased life expectancy, improved bone density, better balance, prevention of joint stiffness and arthritis, avoiding injury, youthfulness and well-shaped body, decreased high blood pressure and excess weight, and increased psychological benefits. Andrea: “All this stuff [gardening and

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Holly Thorpe, Julie Brice and Anna Rolleston

Zealand) throughout and do not italicize Māori words. 2. RED-S is a condition that can occur in athletic women resulting in symptoms such as bone density loss, amenorrhea (chronic loss of menstruation), cardiovascular health problems, and a host of other issues as a result of low energy availability

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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

reproductive function and lowered testosterone levels on bone density in male endurance athletes . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 30 ( 3 ), 205 – 208 . PubMed ID: 8889111 doi:10.1136/bjsm.30.3.205 10.1136/bjsm.30.3.205 Berg , U. , Enqvist , J.K. , Mattsson , C.M. , Carlsson-Skwirut , C

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Petter Fagerberg

doi:10.1097/00006842-194801000-00003 10.1097/00006842-194801000-00003 Smathers , A.M. , Bemben , M.G. , & Bemben , D.A. ( 2009 ). Bone density comparisons in male competitive road cyclists and untrained controls . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41 ( 2 ), 290 – 296 . PubMed doi:10

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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

availability, irregular menses, and low bone density). Thus, Sommi et al ( 151 ) recommend “synergistic training adaptations” ( 52 ). This type of training method suggests that strength and conditioning programs should complement the physiological adaptations occurring throughout childhood and adolescence