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Nicole C. George, Charles Kahelin, Timothy A. Burkhart and David M. Andrews

crests Underbust Horizontal distance around the trunk just inferior to breast tissue Bust Horizontal distance around the trunk at nipple level Neck Distance around the neck, perpendicular to the long axis, at the level of the thyroid cartilage Head Horizontal distance

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Emma Hoffman, Abrianna D’Onofrio, Shelby Baez and Julie Cavallario

, or corticosteroid treatment in the previous 2 weeks. Inclusion: Patients 20–40 years of age, diagnosed with PFPS. Exclusion: Diagnosis of tendonitis, Osgood-Schlatter disease, severe knee deformity, meniscus, ligament, or cartilage damage, history of lower extremity trauma or operation, myopathy

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Dominique C. Leibbrandt and Quinette A. Louw

in articular cartilage pathology. 5 , 6 The exact cause of this increased joint stress is unknown, but it may arise from abnormal biomechanical and neuromuscular factors that cause maltracking of the patella within the femoral trochlea. 7 , 8 Although this theory has been well cited in the

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John H. Hollman, Tyler A. Berling, Ellen O. Crum, Kelsie M. Miller, Brent T. Simmons and James W. Youdas

association with hip pain in Japanese men and women: the ROAD study . Osteoarthritis Cartilage . 2016 ; 24 ( 1 ): 117 – 123 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.joca.2015.07.017 10.1016/j.joca.2015.07.017 26241774 6. Mason JB . Acetabular labral tears in the athlete . Clin Sports Med . 2001 ; 20 ( 4 ): 779 – 790

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Kenji Kanazawa, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Takuya Sekiguchi, Ryo Fujita, Kazuaki Suzuki, Masashi Koide, Akira Ando and Yutaka Yabe

. Osteoarthritis Cartilage . 2012 ; 20 : 241 – 249 . PubMed ID: 22233812 doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2011.12.008 22233812 17. Bercoff J , Tanter M , Fink M . Supersonic shear imaging: a new technique for soft tissue elasticity mapping . IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control . 2004 ; 51 : 396 – 409

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J. Luke Pryor, Brittany Christensen, Catherine G. R. Jackson and Stephanie Moore-Reed

Phys Med Rehabil . 1980 ; 61 : 569 – 574 . PubMed ID: 7458621 7458621 14. Cho SY , Roh HT . Trekking poles reduce downhill walking-induced muscle and cartilage damage in obese women . J Phys Ther Sci . 2016 ; 28 ( 5 ): 1574 – 1576 . PubMed ID: 27313374 doi:10.1589/jpts.28.1574 27313374 10

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Jonathan Sinclair and Paul J. Taylor

:10.1136/bjsm.2004.010900 15728687 10.1136/bjsm.2004.010900 6. Roos H , Adalberth T , Dahlberg L , Lohmander LS . Osteoarthritis of the knee after injury to the anterior cruciate ligament or meniscus: the influence of time and age . Osteoarthritis Cartilage . 1995 ; 3 : 261 – 267

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Siobhán O’Connor, Conor Bruce, Calvin Teahan, Elaine McDermott and Enda Whyte

.31–29.47) Tendinopathy 5 6.33 (6.27–6.39) 26.01 (21.71–31.15) Cartilage/labral tear 4 5.06 (5.01–5.12) 32.62 (27.77–38.32) Contusion 4 5.06 (5.01–5.12) 11.02 (8.35–14.54) Bone bruising 2 2.53 (2.49–2.57) 3.31 (1.99–5.48) Lacerations 1 1.27 (1.24–1.29) 2.64 (1.50–4.66) Other 2 2.53 (2.49–2.57) – a Days absent per 1000 h

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Jonathon R. Staples, Kevin A. Schafer, Matthew V. Smith, John Motley, Mark Halstead, Andrew Blackman, Amanda Haas, Karen Steger-May, Matthew J. Matava, Rick W. Wright and Robert H. Brophy

to patient recruitment. Patients or Participants All patients were recruited from the practices of 3 academic orthopedic sports medicine surgeons who work in the same clinic. Exclusion criteria included prior knee pathology, concomitant articular cartilage or ligamentous injury, contralateral knee

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Siobhán O’Connor, Róisín Leahy, Enda Whyte, Paul O’Donovan and Lauren Fortington

.9-13.7 Dislocation 1 0.2 7 1.6 1 2.3 3 0.7 13 4 1.7-5.0 Cartilage/meniscus 0 0 0 0 0 0 33 7.5 33 7.5 5.4-10.4 Overuse 1 0.2 4 0.9 5 1.1 21 4.8 31 7.1 5.0-9.8 Concussion 17 3.9 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 17 3.9 2.4-6.1 Dead leg or bruise 0 0 4 0.9 0 0 17 3.8 21 4.8 3.2-7.2 Laceration 1 0.2 8 1.8 0 0 5 1.1 14 3.2 1