This case study examined interpersonal communication in sport in the form of verbal aggression among elite athletes in the Australian Football League (AFL). It focused on the experience and motivation of athletes who use athlete-to-athlete verbal aggression and the responses of athletes who have been the targets of verbal aggression during games. In addition, the reasons athletes have for not engaging in verbal aggression were also examined. Purposive sampling procedures produced a select sample of elite male athletes known for their aggressive approach to playing Australian football. Qualitative methods and deductive analysis procedures, informed by J.H. Kerr’s categories of sport aggression, were used to interpret the interview data. Meaningful insights into verbal aggression in the AFL were obtained. Based on the underlying motivation, interview transcript descriptions of incidents were identified as examples of power, thrill, and anger verbal aggression.
John H. Kerr and Pippa Grange
Linda J. Schoenstedt and Jackie Reau
The objective of this case study was to create and execute a proactive new-media public relations plan for the 2009 Cincinnati Flying Pig Marathon. Although the economic activity surrounding this marathon has been studied by Cobb and Olberding (2008), the 11th running of the popular marathon offered a chance to launch a social-media newsroom inside the traditional media center. Social-media tools like Twitter, YouTube, blogs, Facebook, Twitpics, and other multimedia postings have revamped news forums through their immediate transmission of news while traditional media must wait until press time. Few sporting events have actively planned to use social-media platforms to create ad campaigns, generate buzz, or track digital participation for selling, marketing, and measuring various responses to the event.
Elsa Kristiansen and Dag Vidar Hanstad
This case study explores the relationship between media and sport. More specifically, it examines the association (i.e., the contact and communication) between Norwegian journalists and athletes during the 2010 Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada. Ten athletes and three journalists were interviewed about their relationship. To regulate and improve the journalist–athlete relationship during special events like the Olympics, media rules have been formulated. In regard to the on-site interactions, they accepted that they are working together where one was performing and the other reporting the event “back home.” While the best advice is to be understanding of the journalists’ need for stories and inside information, the media coverage was perceived as a constant stress factor for the athletes. However, because of the media rules the athletes were able to keep their distance but one athlete did comment: “You will not survive if you take it personally.”
Sarah A. Doolittle and Paul B. Rukavina
This single case study (Yin, 2009) compares an established urban physical education/sport/physical activity program with two models: Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program/CSPAP (AAHPERD, 2013; CDC, 2013); and Lawson’s propositions (2005) for sport, exercise and physical education for empowerment and community development to determine their applicability in urban schools. Data include semistructured interviews, multiple observations, and artifacts collected over two academic years. Triangulation, peer debriefing, and interpretative and member checks were used for trustworthiness. Findings indicate that most aspects of both theories were evident in the program, though goals exceeded those of CSPAP as stated, and Lawson’s concept of “community” was limited. Major themes related to establishing this CSPAP are described, including practical strategies for budget, scheduling and staffing, and qualities of leadership. Stakeholders reported that they valued the program not for student wellness, but for personal, social and academic well being, as well as for contributions to the school culture.
Esa Rovio, Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Daniel A. Weigand, Jari Eskola and Taru Lintunen
Research investigating the use of several team building (TB) interventions collectively in one case study is sparse. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, via action research, the process of implementation of a season-long (12 months) multifaceted TB program with a junior league ice hockey team in Finland. The team consisted of 22 players, aged 15–16 years, and three coaches. Inductive content analyses revealed that performance profiling, individual and group goal setting, and role clarification produced additional value to the TB program. Group norms became a vital part of group goal setting. The results are discussed in relation to existing definitions of TB and the importance of using a multifaceted approach to TB.
Robin C. Jackson and Julien S. Baker
This paper presents a case study of the most prolific rugby goal kicker of all time. In the first part of the study, the consistency of his preperformance routine was analyzed over kicks of varying difficulty. Results indicate that while certain physical aspects of his routine remain consistent, both his concentration time and physical preparation time increase with kick difficulty. In the second part of the study, the participant was interviewed about his physical and mental preparation for rugby goal kicking in competitive situations. The interview revealed that the participant incorporates a number of psychological skills into his routine, including thought stopping, cueing, and imagery but does not do so consistently. However, he perceives the timing of his routine to be highly consistent. Implications of these findings for the recommendation that performers strive for temporal consistency in their routines (Boutcher, 1990) are discussed.
Ailsa G. Anderson, Craig Mahoney, Andrew Miles and Paul Robinson
Applied sport psychology has entered an “age of accountability” (Smith, 1989) and the need to develop appropriate methods to evaluate practice has been well documented (Grove, Norton, Van Raalte, & Brewer, 1999; Strean, 1998). In this paper, we have developed a framework within which practitioners can assess the effectiveness of their practice and collect evaluative information that will increase their accountability to the stakeholders. We argue that a practitioner administered case study approach to evaluation, using a number of effectiveness indicators in triangulation, is appropriate to accommodate the constraints of a practice setting and fulfill the functional criteria for evaluating practice. Further discussion on when to evaluate practice and criteria for determining effectiveness is undertaken.
Margaret Keiper, Dylan Williams and Gil Fried
Fraud is a very broad term, but the underlying theme is the intentional act of deception for personal financial gain. This case study highlights three examples of fraud at different levels of sport: youth, collegiate, and professional. Students are provided a broad perspective of financial fraud and are exposed to differing types of criminal activity at each level of sport. Furthermore, the authors provide an understanding of financial fraud, illegal activities related to fraud, and the responsibilities that all sport management professionals have within various positions at each respective level. Finally, this case provides students with an opportunity to suggest solutions and deterrents for dealing with financial fraud at each level. Specifically, the authors provide a rationale for the use of internal controls within an organization to segregate an organization’s financial responsibilities and reduce the risk of financial fraud.
Erica Pasquini and Melissa Thompson
Coaching as a profession is a complex role that requires professional, interpersonal, and intrapersonal knowledge . In order for coaches to develop expertise in these areas, continued education can be beneficial. The case study presented focuses on the development and dissemination of a coach-education intervention designed to challenge coach thinking surrounding the coach-expectancy cycle. The coach-expectancy cycle is a well-researched model of coach behavior that follows a 4-stage cyclical pattern in which coaches develop biases based on their previous experiences. These biases then affect coach behavior toward athletes, which in turn affects athlete performance and motivation. Finally, athlete performance reinforces coach expectations. The authors developed a 2-hr theory-based intervention promoting mitigation of the cycle in a group of youth-soccer coaches. Theories used, the intervention, and practitioner reflections are discussed.
Teddy W. Worrell, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Jack Farr
The purpose of this case study was to determine the effect of patellar taping, patellar bracing, and control condition on (a) patellofemoral congruence angle (PFC), (b) lateral patellar angle (LPA), (c) lateral patellar displacement (LPD), and (d) pain, as determined by the visual analog scale (VAS) during an 8-in. step-down. The subject was a 15-year-old female with a 3-year history of recurrent patellar subluxations and anterior knee pain syndrome. Results revealed the following: control condition—PFC 41.4-1.1°, LPA 19.9-6.9°, LPD 18.6-8.3 mm, VAS 8.8 cm; tape—PFC 46.2-2.3°, LPA 25.1-2.9°, LPD 24.2-7.5 mm, VAS 0.8 cm; brace—PFC 3.4-16.5°, LPA 7.9-0.8°, LPD 9.4-4.7 mm, VAS 0.3 cm. Patellar bracing was effective in centralizing the patella as revealed by the PFC, LPA, and LPD measures; however, patellar taping did not improve patellar position, and in some positions taping actually worsened patellar position. A large reduction in pain as measured by the VAS occurred during an 8-in. step-down for both taping and bracing. More research is necessary to explain the pain reduction without a change in patellar position using tape.