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Noora J. Ronkainen, Amanda Shuman and Lin Xu

the new Chinese, urban middle-class are encouraged to transform their bodies through self-improvement ( Song & Lee, 2010 ; Yang, 2011 ), to take individual responsibility in finding success and happiness in their lives ( Zhang, 2014 ; 2015 ), and to be independent, competitive, risk-taking, and

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Angela Robles

athletes participating at the NCAA competitive level has grown significantly and consistently over the past three decades ( NCAA, 2016 ). Nearly 20,000 female athletes are competing in the sport of softball at the collegiate level every year. This statistic does not include the thousands of female athletes

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Montserrat Martin, Nancy Spencer and Toni Bruce

skating, synchronised swimming, tennis, netball). For instance, in Spain basketball is the most popular participatory competitive sport amongst women. Imagine that regularly 90 percent of live television and news coverage is on women’s basketball with not even 10 percent on men’s basketball. Imagine the

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Siegfried Nagel, Karsten Elmose-Østerlund, Jenny Adler Zwahlen and Torsten Schlesinger

. Furthermore, variables informing the frequency of sports participation, participation in competitive sport, and the size of the team or group within club sports practiced most frequently were integrated in the analysis. Table 3 Descriptive Statistics for the Independent Variables Included in the Analyses

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Gwendolyn M. Weatherford, Betty A. Block and Fredrick L. Wagner

point when values and beliefs of the past collide with the new realities of a diverse, technological, competitive, and global world. The parallel impact on the roles that women play in sport as athletes and leaders are revealed by identifying the complexities and social realities that are vying and

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Taylor M. Henry

Duke basketball player Grayson Allen tripping opponents. Leonard notes that in such situations, there is no assumption of deviance on the part of white athletes who transgress the rules; rather, focus is directed to their apparently insatiable competitive instinct and desire to win. This same

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Douglas Booth

relationships include the “invention of modern sport as an exercise in reification” (157) and modernity as a “state of constant and permanently disruptive change” propelled by an “ineradicable, unquenchable thirst for enhanced productivity or competitiveness” (193). Why does Gruneau believe that critical social

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Lin Yu, Hanhan Xue and Joshua I. Newman

as the ‘globalization-capital mobility-city competitiveness’ triad, whereby the shift toward a market-oriented economy is underpinned by a change in governance logics oriented around urban entrepreneurialism and global interconnectivity ( Wu, 2002 , 2008 ). Wu ( 2003 ) convincingly argues that this

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from the literature for aerobic fitness and body fat and highlight that Zumba is beneficial to improve fitness and wellbeing in healthy women but might not be appropriate on its own for weight loss. Weight on the Bar vs. Weight on the Scale: Disordered Eating Pathology in Competitive Female

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Roger Gilles

-four. 4 Intentionally or not, these factors combined to facilitate faster and more competitive races than the men’s version of six-day races. Men typically averaged just 13 or 14 miles per hour in their trudging endurance contests, while the women maintained speeds of 20 to 22 miles per hour, often