The purpose of this study was to examine relations between women's involvment in sports and three psychological constructs: role conflict, sex-role identification, and multidimensional self-concepts. The three groups comprised female powerlifters competing in a national championship (n = 30), high school female athletes (n = 46), and high school female nonathletes (n = 46). Role conflict was not substantial except for a few specific areas related to conflicting expectations of appropriate female and athlete behavior. Both athletic groups scored substantially higher on masculinity (M) and on self-concept of physical ability than the nonathletic group, but there were no group differences on femininity (F) and few substantial differences in other areas of self-concept. Hence the results provide further support for the construct validity of androgyny and for the multidimensionality of self-concept. The major findings, that female athletes can be more M without being less F, and that female athletic involvement has positive benefits without producing any loss in F or in self-concept, dispels a popular myth about women's involvement in sports.
Susan A. Jackson and Herbert W. Marsh
Maureen R. Weiss and Alan L. Smith
The purpose of this study was to examine age and gender differences in the quality of sport friendship, assess the relationship between friendship quality and motivation related variables, and obtain additional support for the validity of the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS; Weiss & Smith, 1999). Tennis players (N = 191, ages 10–18 years) completed the SFQS and other measures salient to the questions of the study. A MANOVA revealed that adolescent athletes ages 14–18 years rated loyalty and intimacy, things in common, and conflict higher than did younger players, ages 10–13 years, who in turn rated companionship and pleasant play higher. Girls rated self-esteem enhancement and supportiveness, loyalty and intimacy, and things in common higher than did boys, who rated conflict higher. Regression analysis indicated that companionship and pleasant play, conflict resolution, and things in common predicted higher tennis enjoyment and commitment. The collective findings—confirmation of the SFQS six-factor structure, relationships between sport friendship quality dimensions and peer acceptance, and relationships of sport friendship quality dimensions with Harter’s (1988) close friendship measure—support the validity of the SFQS.
Kristine Toohey and Tracy Taylor
This paper is a summary of a research project to investigate the relationships between women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and sport. A conflict between sport providers’ perceptions of the needs of women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and the views of the women themselves was found. Providers generally perceived the problem of low participation in sport as relating to the women’s culture (a cultural deficit explanation); whereas, the women interviewed mainly associated their low participation rates with non-inclusionary practices engaged in by providers.
Tracy Everbach and Jenny Mumah
This study analyzed the reactions of college women athletes to mass media images of nude and scantily clad professional female athletes. The study focused on interviews of 18- to 22-year-old female athletes about the pressure on women to pose for sexualized photographs. Using a feminist framework, the study found that some of the college athletes rejected socially constructed concepts of femininity, others criticized the professional athletes for posing, and others accepted socially constructed standards of beauty. This research suggests that young women athletes are conflicted by the images of femininity presented by mass media and react in complex ways to them.
Ted S. Sturman and Ryan Thibodeau
Research on the effects of extrinsic rewards on subsequent levels of intrinsic motivation and performance has produced conflicting results. In the present study, player statistics were obtained on 33 major league baseball free agents for two seasons prior to, and two seasons after, the signing of the contract. Results suggest that the new contract, particularly its substantial pay raise, caused a decrease in immediate postcontract performance. In addition, there was some evidence that performance output recovered to its precontract level in the second season postcontract. Findings are discussed with respect to previous work on intrinsic to extrinsic motivational shifts and the overjustification effect.
Michael Odio and Shannon Kerwin
The senior internship is a critical developmental experience for sport management students transitioning into their careers. Despite the internship’s role as a career development tool, previous research has suggested that the experience may deter students from continuing to pursue a career in the sports industry (Cunningham, Sagas, Dixon, Turner, & Kent, 2005). The present study uses decision-making theory and a longitudinal approach to improve on previous efforts to examine changes in students’ affective commitment to the vocation and intent to pursue a career in the vocation as a result of the internship experience. Results of the structural model show that challenge, supervisor support, and role conflict significantly influence students’ career decision making.
Frank Jacobs, Annelies Knoppers, Rene Diekstra and Marcin Sklad
A frequent critique of coach education courses is that they are designed by scholars with little input from coaches about what they think they need. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and content of a coach education course that was grounded in stakeholder needs. Dutch amateur football coaches felt ill-equipped to handle conflicts and confrontational behaviors by players and/or parents. Therefore a coach education course was created to help coaches develop tools they could use to improve their interpersonal skills. The tools were drawn from the teaching strategies of Forgatch and DeGarmo (1999) and Rational-Emotive Education (REE) (Knaus, 1974).
Michael J. McNamee, Bradley Partridge and Lynley Anderson
The issue of concussion in sport is a matter of global public interest that is currently under dispute by educational, legal, and medical professionals and scientists. In this article we discuss the problem from philosophical, bioethical, and sports ethical perspectives. We articulate conceptual differences in approaches to definition and therefore diagnosis of concussion. We critically review similarities and differences in the leading consensus statements that guide the treatment of concussion diagnosis and treatment in sports. We then present a series of ethical problems including issues that relate to paternalistic intervention in the lives of athletes in order to prevent harm to athletes, conflicting and competing interests, and confidentiality.
Martin Camiré, Pierre Trudel and Dany Bernard
A case study of a high school ice hockey program designed to teach players life skills and values was conducted to understand, from the perspective of administrators, coaches, parents, and players, the strengths and challenges of the program. Results indicated that the program’s strengths lied in its comprehensive approach to teaching life skills and values in addition to coaches’ ability to foster relationship with players. However, program members also faced many challenges related to traveling, a lack of resources, and conflicting goals. Results are discussed using the Petitpas et al. (2005) framework and the youth development through sport literature.
Christopher M. Carr
This paper describes one psychologist’s professional journey providing clinical sport psychological services to student athletes, from training to first position, and on to current roles and responsibilities. Obstacles in providing psychological care to student-athletes in the intercollegiate setting are highlighted and an approach to overcoming these obstacles is articulated. Most importantly, this paper highlights the consequences of both interdisciplinary conflict within sport psychology and poorly trained professionals. The importance of ongoing professional development for both the individual practitioner and the field of sport psychology as a whole is thoroughly presented and discussed.