determining cut-points for classifying physical activity ( Esliger et al., 2011 ; Evenson et al., 2008 ). Statistical Analysis Normality tests were conducted using Kolmogorov and Shapiro-Wilk and identified that variables were not normally distributed ( p < .05). Spearman’s product moment correlations were
Emma L. J. Eyre, Jason Tallis, Susie Wilson, Lee Wilde, Liam Akhurst, Rildo Wanderleys and Michael J. Duncan
Jennifer J. Sherwood, Cathy Inouye, Shannon L. Webb and Jenny O
position transducer (LPT) during the RP of an STS showed good correlation to maximum gait speed ( r = .536) and to power measured in the NPR ( r = .646; Lindemann et al., 2015 ). In community-dwelling older adults, the RP of the STS measured with inertial body sensors has been established as an
Hee Sik Kim and Kiyoji Tanaka
The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which a battery of 24 activities of daily living (ADL) performance tasks could be used to determine functional age in a sample of older women. The subjects were 253 older adult Korean women, aged 60 to 91 years. All subjects completed a comprehensive battery of 24 performance tests related to common activities of daily living. Correlations between the measures were computed, and principal component analysis was applied to the 24 × 24 correlation matrix. A principal component score was computed for each subject and was found to decrease significantly with advancing age. Multiple regression analysis revealed that out of the initial 24 variables, 5 variables accounted for 81% of the variability. An equation was developed to determine ADL age; the equation was considered useful for the assessment of daily living activities of older adult Korean women.
Christophe Gernigon, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, Didier Delignières and Grégory Ninot
Based on the dynamical systems perspective, the present study aimed to explore how states of involvement toward mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals (Elliot & Church, 1997) flow, are interrelated, and are activated during a practice judo combat. Using a retrospective video recall method, two male national level judo competitors expressed on a computer their moment-to-moment level of involvement toward each goal. Self-confrontation interviews also based on the video were immediately conducted. Analyses of variance revealed differences in levels of each goal between periods of the combat. Windowed cross-correlation analyses showed that the patterns of relationships between the time series of the different goals considered two-by-two included either high positive, high negative, or zero correlations, depending on the moment. Qualitative data analyses supported these findings and suggested that goal involvement states emerged and fluctuated according to the ecological constraints of the situation, such as the initial contextual conditions and the course of action.
Shujun Gao, Lisa Harnack, Kathryn Schmitz, Janet Fulton, Leslie Lytle, Pamela Van Coevering and David R. Jacobs Jr.
We assessed the validity and reliability of a modified Godin-Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire in youth in grades 6 through 8.
The questionnaire was completed by 250 children twice at a 1 wk interval to assess reliability. After the second questionnaire administration the children wore an accelerometer for 7 d (criterion measure).
Pearson correlations between the first and second reports of frequency of participation in strenuous and moderate physical activity were 0.68 and 0.51, respectively. Self-reported participation in strenuous activity was weakly correlated with strenuous activity as measured by accelerometer (r = 0.23, P = 0.01). A weak non-significant correlation was found between reported versus measured engagement in moderate activity (r = 0.13, P = 0.07).
Findings suggest the questionnaire evaluated in this study may be of very limited use for assessing children’s physical activity.
Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Kitty R.M. Streppel, Allard J. van der Beek, Luc H.V. van der Woude, Miriam Vollenbroek-Hutten and Willem van Mechelen
The objective was to determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD).
Forty-five non-wheelchair dependent subjects were recruited from three Dutch rehabilitation centers. Subjects’ diagnoses were: stroke, spinal cord injury, whiplash, and neurological-, orthopedic- or back disorders. The PASIPD is a 7-d recall physical activity questionnaire that was completed twice, 1 wk apart. During this week, physical activity was also measured with an Actigraph accelerometer.
The test-retest reliability Spearman correlation of the PASIPD was 0.77. The criterion validity Spearman correlation was 0.30 when compared to the accelerometer.
The PASIPD had test-retest reliability and criterion validity that is comparable to well established self-report physical activity questionnaires from the general population.
Herbert W. Marsh and Robyn Sutherland Redmayne
This study examines relations between six components of physical self-concept (Endurance, Balance, Flexibility, Strength, Appearance, and general Physical Ability) and five components of physical fitness (Endurance, Balance, Flexibility, Static Strength, Explosive Strength/Power) for a sample (N = 105) of young adolescent girls aged 13 and 14. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses identified the six physical self-concept scales and provided support for a multidimensional, hierarchical model of physical self-concept. The pattern of correlations between specific components of physical self-concept and physical fitness generally supported the construct validity of the self-concept responses, and the correlation between second-order factors representing general physical self-concept and general physical fitness (r = .76) was substantial.
Alessandra de Carvalho Bastone, Bruno de Souza Moreira, Renata Alvarenga Vieira, Renata Noce Kirkwood, João Marcos Domingues Dias and Rosângela Corrêa Dias
The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the Human Activity Profile (HAP) by comparing scores with accelerometer data and by objectively testing its cutoff points. This study included 120 older women (age 60–90 years). Average daily time spent in sedentary, moderate, and hard activity; counts; number of steps; and energy expenditure were measured using an accelerometer. Spearman rank order correlations were used to evaluate the correlation between the HAP scores and accelerometer variables. Significant relationships were detected (rho = .47−.75, p < .001), indicating that the HAP estimates physical activity at a group level well; however, scatterplots showed individual errors. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine HAP cutoff points on the basis of physical activity level recommendations, and the cutoff points found were similar to the original HAP cutoff points. The HAP is a useful indicator of physical activity levels in older women.
Harold A. Riemer and Packianathan Chelladurai
The development of the l5-dimension, 56-item Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ) was based on Chelladurai and Riemer’s (1997) classification of facets of athlete satisfaction. Qualitative procedures included item generation, expert judgment, and independent placement of items in relevant facets. Quantitative procedures, item-to-total correlations, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, involving 172 undergraduate students and 614 Canadian university athletes, confirmed the construct validity of the scale. Correlations between the ASQ’s subscales and scales of commitment and negative affectivity provided evidence of criterion-related validity. Reliability estimates (Cronbach’s alpha) ranged from .78 to .95. The 15 facets of ASQ encompassed salient aspects of athletic participation, performance (both individual and team), leadership, the team, the organization, and the athlete.
Shawn M. Arent, Daniel M. Landers and Jennifer L. Etnier
This meta-analysis examined the exercise-mood relationship in older adults. 158 effect sizes (ESs) from 32 studies were grouped intoexperimental-versus-control, gains, and correlational ESs. Each study was coded for moderator variables related to descriptive, design, participant, exercise, and mood-assessment characteristics. Experimental-versus-control ESs for negative (NA) and positive affect (PA) were 0.35 (p < .05) and 0.33 (p > .05), respectively, with an overall ES of 0.34, p < .05. The gains ESs for NA and PA in an exercise group were 0.39 (p < .05) and 0.35 (p < .05), respectively, with an overall ES of 0.38, p < .05. All effects were significantly greater than those for the control groups. Correlational ESs of 0.47 and 0.42 were found for NA and PA. respectively. It was concluded that chronic exercise is associated with improved mood in the elderly. Moderating variables and implications for exercise prescription to improve mood in the elderly are discussed.