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Alex S. Ribeiro, Fábio Luiz C. Pina, Soraya R. Dodero, Danilo R. P. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Paulo Sugihara Júnior, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Décio S. Barbosa, Edilson S. Cyrino and Julio Tirapegui

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 8 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise on body fat and lipid profile on obese women. We performed a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial with 28 obese women who received 3.2 g/day of CLA or 4 g/day of olive oil (placebo group) while performing an 8-week protocol of aerobic exercise. Dietary intake (food record), body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and biochemical analysis (blood sample) were assessed before and after the intervention period. Independent of CLA supplementation, both groups improved (p < .05) oxygen uptake (CLA group, 13.2%; PLC group, 14.8%), trunk fat (CLA group, −1.0%; PLC group, −0.5%), leg fat (CLA group, −1.0%; PLC group, −1.6%), and total body fat (CLA group, −1.7%; PLC group, −1.3%) after the 8-week intervention. No main effect or Group × Time interaction was found for total cholesterol, triglycerides, and plasma lipoproteins (p > .05). We conclude that CLA supplementation associated with aerobic exercise has no effect on body fat reduction and lipid profile improvements over placebo in young adult obese women.

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Herculina S. Kruger, Lize Havemann-Nel, Chrisna Ravyse, Sarah J. Moss and Michael Tieland

Background:

Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women.

Methods:

In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) < 4.94 kg/m2.

Results:

In total, 8.9% of the women were sarcopenic, decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = –.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = –.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength.

Conclusions:

Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.

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Linda B. Houtkooper, Veronica A. Mullins, Scott B. Going, C. Harmon Brown and Timothy G. Lohman

This study characterized body composition profiles of elite American heptathletes and cross-validated skinfold (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) field method equations for estimation of percent body fat (%Fat) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion. Weight, height, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), bone mineral density (BMD), and %Fat were measured in 19 heptathletes using standard measurement protocols for DXA, SKFs and BIA. The ages, heights, and weights were respectively 25.5 ± 3.5 years, 175.0 ± 6.6 cm, 67.3 ± 7.1 kg. DXA estimates of mean ± SD values for body composition variables were 57.2 ± 6.1 kg FFM, 10.1 ± 2.6 kg FM, 114 ± 7% BMD for age/racial reference group, and 15 ± 3.0 %Fat. Ranges of bias values for %Fat (DXA minus SKF or BIA) were, respectively, −0.5 to 1.6% and −5.5 to −1.2%. Ranges for standard errors of estimate and total errors were, respectively, SKF 2.4–2.5%, 2.4–2.8% and BIA 3.0%, 5.0–6.5%. Regression analyses of the field methods on DXA were significant (p < .05) for all SKF equations but not BIA equations. This study demonstrates that elite American heptathletes are lean, have high levels of BMD, and that SKF equations provide more accurate estimates of %Fat relative to DXA than estimates from BIA equations.

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Thomas B. Walker, Jessica Smith, Monica Herrera, Breck Lebegue, Andrea Pinchak and Joseph Fischer

The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of whey-protein and leucine supplementation to enhance physical and cognitive performance and body composition. Thirty moderately fit participants completed a modified Air Force fitness test, a computer-based cognition test, and a dual-energy X-ray-absorptiometry scan for body composition before and after supplementing their daily diet for 8 wk with either 19.7 g of whey protein and 6.2 g leucine (WPL) or a calorie-equivalent placebo (P). Bench-press performance increased significantly from Week 1 to Week 8 in the WPL group, whereas the increase in the P group was not significant. Push-up performance increased significantly for WPL, and P showed a nonsignificant increase. Total mass, fat-free mass, and lean body mass all increased significantly in the WPL group but showed no change in the P group. No differences were observed within or between groups for crunches, chin-ups, 3-mile-run time, or cognition. The authors conclude that supplementing with whey protein and leucine may provide an advantage to people whose performance benefits from increased upper body strength and/or lean body mass.

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Darren G. Candow, Natalie C. Burke, T. Smith-Palmer and Darren G. Burke

The purpose was to compare changes in lean tissue mass, strength, and myof-brillar protein catabolism resulting from combining whey protein or soy protein with resistance training. Twenty-seven untrained healthy subjects (18 female, 9 male) age 18 to 35 y were randomly assigned (double blind) to supplement with whey protein (W; 1.2 g/kg body mass whey protein + 0.3 g/kg body mass sucrose power, N = 9: 6 female, 3 male), soy protein (S; 1.2 g/kg body mass soy protein + 0.3 g/kg body mass sucrose powder, N = 9: 6 female, 3 male) or placebo (P; 1.2 g/kg body mass maltodextrine + 0.3 g/kg body mass sucrose powder, N = 9: 6 female, 3 male) for 6 wk. Before and after training, measurements were taken for lean tissue mass (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), strength (1-RM for bench press and hack squat), and an indicator of myofbrillar protein catabolism (urinary 3-methylhistidine). Results showed that protein supplementation during resistance training, independent of source, increased lean tissue mass and strength over isocaloric placebo and resistance training (P < 0.05). We conclude that young adults who supplement with protein during a structured resistance training program experience minimal beneficial effects in lean tissue mass and strength.

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Scott Duncan, Jamile Sanches Codogno, Manoel Carlos Spiguel Lima and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

Background:

Physical activity level is an important tool to identify individuals predisposed to developing chronic diseases, which represent a major concern worldwide.

Objective:

To identify correlates of daily step counts measured using pedometers, as well as analyze the associations between health outcomes and 3 different amounts of daily physical activity.

Methods:

The sample comprised 278 participants (126 men and 153 women) with a mean age of 46.51 ± 9.02 years. Physical activity was assessed using pedometers for 7 consecutive days, and 3 amounts of daily physical activity were considered: ≥10,000 steps/day, ≥7500 steps/day, and <5000 steps/day. Sleep quality was assessed through a questionnaire, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body fat. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were also collected.

Results:

The percentages of adults achieving at least 10,000 and 7500 steps/day on a minimum of 5 days of the evaluated week were 12.9% and 30.9%, respectively. Adults who reached ≥7500 steps/day had a lower likelihood of being obese (odds ratio [OR] = 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–0.85) and reporting worse sleep quality (OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.34–0.99). Adults who reached <5000 steps/day had a higher likelihood of reporting worse sleep quality (OR = 2.11, 95% CI, 1.17–3.82).

Conclusion:

Physical activity in adulthood, as measured by pedometer, constituted a behavior related to lower adiposity and better sleep quality.

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Deborah Fearnley, Louise Sutton, John O’Hara, Amy Brightmore, Roderick King and Carlton Cooke

The Vendée Globe is a solo round-the-world sailing race without stopovers or assistance, a physically demanding challenge for which appropriate nutrition should maintain energy balance and ensure optimum performance. This is an account of prerace nutritional preparation with a professional and experienced female racer and assessment of daily nutritional intake (NI) during the race using a multimethod approach. A daily energy intake (EI) of 15.1 MJ/day was recommended for the race and negotiated down by the racer to 12.7 MJ/day, with carbohydrate and fluid intake goals of 480 g/day and 3,020 ml/day, respectively. Throughout the 99-day voyage, daily NI was recorded using electronic food diaries and inventories piloted during training races. NI was assessed and a postrace interview and questionnaire were used to evaluate the intervention. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed pre- (37 days) and postrace (11 days) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body mass was measured before the racer stepped on the yacht and immediately postrace. Mean EI was 9.2 MJ/day (2.4–14.3 MJ/day), representing a negative energy balance of 3.5 MJ/day under the negotiated EI goal, evidenced by a 7.9-kg loss of body mass (FM –7.5 kg, FFM –0.4 kg) during the voyage, with consequent underconsumption of carbohydrate by ~130 g/day. According to the postrace yacht food inventory, self-reported EI was underreported by 7%. This intervention demonstrates the practicality of the NI approach and assessment, but the racer’s nutrition strategy can be further improved to facilitate meeting more optimal NI goals for performance and health. It also shows that evaluation of NI is possible in this environment over prolonged periods, which can provide important information for optimizing nutritional strategies for ocean racing.

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Robyn S. Mehlenbeck, Kenneth D. Ward, Robert C. Klesges and Christopher M. Vukadinovich

Calcium intake in adolescent and young adult female athletes often is inadequate to optimize peak bone mass, an important determinant of osteoporosis risk. The purpose of this study was to determine if calcium supplementation in eumenorrheic female collegiate athletes increases intake to recommended levels and promotes increases in bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-eight eumenorrheic female athletes from several college teams (15 soccer, 7 crosscountry, 8 indoor track, and 18 basketball) were randomized at the beginning of a competitive season to receive either an oral calcium supplement (1000 mg calcium citrate/400 I.U. Vitamin D) or placebo daily throughout the training season (16 weeks). Self-reported daily pill intake was obtained every 2 weeks to assess adherence. Calcium intake was evaluated using the Rapid Assessment Method, and total body and leg BMD was measured at pre-, mid-, and postseason using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Hologic QDR-2000). Pre-season calcium intake was lower than national recommendations for this age group (12), averaging 842 mg/d (SD = 719) and was lower in the placebo group compared to the supplemented group (649 ± 268 vs. 1071 ± 986 mg/d, respectively; p = .064). Adherence to supplementation was good, averaging 70% across the training season. Supplementation boosted total calcium intake to a mean of 1397 ± 411 mg/d, which is consistent with recommended levels for this group (37). Supplementation did not influence BMD change during this 16-week intervention. Across teams, a small increase of 0.8% was observed in leg BMD. Change in total body BMD was modified by team, with a significant increase of 1.5% observed in basketball players. These results indicate that providing calcium supplements of 1000 mg/d is adequate to boost total intake to recommended levels during athletic training. Longer intervention trials are required to determine whether calcium supplementation has a positive effect on BMD.

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Nuno M. Pimenta, Helena Santa-Clara, Xavier Melo, Helena Cortez-Pinto, José Silva-Nunes and Luís B. Sardinha

Central accumulation and distribution of body fat (BF) is an important cardiometabolic risk factor. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), commonly elevated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, has been endorsed as a risk related marker of central BF content and distribution, but no standardized waist circumference measurement protocol (WCmp) has been proposed. We aimed to investigate whether using different WCmp affects the strength of association between WHR and BF content and distribution in NAFLD patients. BF was assessed with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 28 NAFLD patients (19 males, 51 ± 13 years, and 9 females, 47 ± 13 years). Waist circumference (WC) was measured using four different WCmp (WC1: minimal waist; WC2: iliac crest; WC3: mid-distance between iliac crest and lowest rib; WC4: at the umbilicus) and WHR was calculated accordingly (WHR1, WHR2, WHR3 and WHR4, respectively). High WHR was found in up to 84.6% of subjects, depending on the WHR considered. With the exception of WHR1, all WHR correlated well with abdominal BF (r = .47 for WHR1; r = .59 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .58 for WHR4) and BF distribution (r = .45 for WHR1; r = .56 for WHR2 and WHR3; r = .51 for WHR4), controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). WHR2 and WHR3 diagnosed exactly the same prevalence of high WHR (76.9%). The present study confirms the strong relation between WHR and central BF, regardless of WCmp used, in NAFLD patients. WHR2 and WHR3 seemed preferable for use in clinical practice, interchangeably, for the diagnosis of high WHR in NAFLD patients.

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Claudia Ridel Juzwiak, Olga Maria Silverio Amancio, Maria Sylvia Souza Vitalle, Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld and Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro

In this prospective, cross-sectional study male adolescent tennis players (44) and nonathletic controls (32) were evaluated to determine the effects of physical activity, dietary nutrient intakes, sexual maturation, and body composition on bone-mineral density (BMD). Dietary nutrient intakes and physical activity expenditure were estimated by 4-d diaries. Total body composition, bone-mineral content (BMC), and BMD (L1–L4, femur, and nondominant forearm) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Tennis players had significantly greater lean body mass (mean [SEM] 50.6 [1.6] kg vs. 45.1 [1.7] kg, p = .022), trochanter BMD (1.0 [0.02] g/cm2 vs. 0.9 [0.03] g/cm2, p = .032), and dominant forearm BMC (173.7 [7.4] g vs. 146.5 [9.3] g) but lower BMD in the nondominant forearm (0.7 [0.02] g/cm2 vs. 0.8 [0.03] g/cm2, p = .028). Daily average calcium intake was below the recommendation in both groups. No correlation was found between BMD and calcium intake and exercise. Lean body mass was the best predictor of BMD and BMC for both tennis players and controls (R 2 = .825, .628, and .693 for L1–L4, total femur, and nondominant forearm, respectively). Based on these results the authors conclude that lean body mass is the best predictor of BMD and BMC for both tennis players and others. Tennis exerts a site-specific effect, and training should focus on ways minimize this effect. Although calcium intake showed no effect on BMD, nutrition education for young athletes should focus on promoting a balanced diet, providing energy and nutrients in adequate amounts.