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John Pates and Kieran Kingston

intervention. The humanistic psychology philosophical approach overarches my work because I try to create a salutary environment that is comfortable, nonjudgmental, and empathetic and emphasizes unconditional positive regard (see Rogers, 1951 ). I also focus on enhancing emotions that are unique to human

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Nate McCaughtry

Although teachers’ knowledge of student emotion is not typically integrated into studies of teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge, this study uses the philosophy of emotion, recent teacher knowledge research, and a case study of one middle-school physical education teacher to illustrate the point that how teachers understand student emotion is inextricably linked to their thinking and decisions about educational content, curriculum, and pedagogy. Data were collected during 4 months of observations and interviews and were analyzed using constant comparison. Three themes are used to show how this teacher’s interpretations of student emotion influenced her selecting, ordering, and formulating of curriculum units, her pedagogical maneuvering during lessons to facilitate learning, and her interactions with individual students and groups of students. The discussion centers on the need to expand current conceptions of teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge, and the importance of emotional understanding in teaching. Future directions for research into emotion and teaching are suggested.

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Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith and Louis Passfield

athlete engagement (e.g.,  Gaudreau & Verner-Filion, 2012 ; Jowett, Hill, Hall, & Curran, 2016 ; Madigan, Hill, Anstiss, Mallinson-Howard, & Kumar, 2018 ). On the other hand, under conditions of failure, perfectionistic strivings predict decrements in performance and negative cognitions, and emotions

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Bradley D. Hatfield

affective challenges compared to age-matched controls. Using fMRI, the BOLD response was recorded during emotional challenge induced by both sport-specific and general unpleasant images while in the magnet to determine specificity of the response. The research was driven by a model of emotion regulation

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Jian Chen, Bruce Oddson and Heather C. Gilbert

of concussed individuals. Our data showed a rise in emotion-related symptoms in individuals with multiple concussions. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is not clear but warrants some discussion and further study. Many factors may influence one’s emotional status including social, psychiatric, and

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Linda Corbally, Mick Wilkinson and Melissa A. Fothergill

training interventions aim to change dysfunctional thoughts and emotions ( Pineau, Glass, Kaufman, & Bernal, 2014 ). In contrast, mindfulness focuses on altering the relationship to physiological and psychological states. Mindfulness has been reported to be a beneficial treatment approach in depression

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Robert J. Schinke, Gershon Tenenbaum, Ronnie Lidor and Andrew M. Lane

Within this opportunity to dialogue in commentary exchange about a previously conceived adaptation model, published in the Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, we revisit the utility of our model (Schinke et al., 2012a) and consider Tamminen and Crocker’s (2014) critique of our earlier writing. We also elaborate on emotion and emotion regulation through explaining hedonistic and instrumental motives to regulate emotions. We draw on research from general and sport psychology to examine emotion regulation (Gross, 2010). We argue that when investigating emotion, or any topic in psychology, the process of drawing from knowledge in a different area of the discipline can be useful, especially if the existing knowledge base in that area is already well developed. In particular, we draw on research using an evolutionary perspective (Nesse & Ellsworth, 2009). Accounting for these issues, we clarify the adaptation framework, expand it, and arguably offer a model that has greater utility for use with athletes in relation to training and competition cycles and progressions throughout their career. We also clarify for the readership places of misinterpretation by the commentary authors, and perhaps, why these have resulted.

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Denise M. Hill, Nic Matthews and Ruth Senior

This study used qualitative methods to explore the stressors, appraisal mechanism, emotional response, and effective/ineffective coping strategies experienced by elite rugby union referees during pressurized performances. Participants included seven male rugby union referees from the United Kingdom (Mage = 27.85, SD = 4.56) who had been officiating as full-time professionals for between 1 and 16 years (M = 4.85, SD = 5.42). Data revealed that the referees encountered a number of stressors, which were appraised initially as a ‘threat’, and elicited negatively-toned emotions. The referees were able to maintain performance standards under pressure by adopting proactive, problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies which managed effectively the stressors and their emotions. However, the use of avoidance-coping, reactive control, and informal impression management were perceived as ineffective coping strategies, and associated with poor performance and choking. Recommendations are offered to inform the psychological skills training of rugby union referees.

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Kathryn Longshore and Michael Sachs

Mindfulness-based research in sport has focused on athletes, while coaches remain unexplored. Research consistently shows that coaches experience high stress, which can lead to burnout, reduced performance, and emotional mismanagement. The present study developed and explored Mindfulness Training for Coaches (MTC), which is aimed at increasing mindfulness and emotional stability while reducing anxiety. Participants were 20 Division I coaches. The mixed-method design included trait and state measures of anxiety, mindfulness, and emotion, along with qualitative semistructured interviews. Trained coaches reported significantly less anxiety and greater emotional stability from pre- to posttraining. The state measures showed trained coaches were lower in anxiety and adverse emotions at each time point. Interviews showed six distinct positive impacts on coaches: anxiety and stress; emotions; mindfulness; coaching; athletes; and personal life. MTC is a promising intervention for coaches to reduce stress, improve well-being, and enhance coach-athlete interactions.

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Alan M. Klein

This study examines the social and cross-cultural aspects of masculinity through an ethnographic assessment of a Mexican League baseball team. The institution and meaning of “machismo” are examined along three indices of emotion: expression of vulnerability and hurt, reactions to children, and expression of physicality. The view widely held by North Americans that Latino and Latin American men are one-dimensional machos is critiqued. It is argued that, rather than comprising a single category, machismo exists along a continuum of masculinity from more to less macho. Cross-cultural comparisons of masculinity between Mexican and Anglo baseball players were also observed, with Mexican players shown as more capable of exhibiting “tender” emotions than their North American teammates. Finally, the study of emotions is shown to also have social consequences for nationalism.