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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

this observation, a recent case study in an elite female endurance athlete demonstrated an increase in LBM when protein intake was increased to 2.6 g·kg BM −1 ·day −1 during ∼2 weeks of reduced energy availability ( Haakonssen et al., 2013 ). Taken together, in terms of practical implications, these

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Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari and Omar Hammouda

limit the depth of the present findings. Hence, any conclusion related to sleep stages should be interpreted with caution. Otherwise, it has been reported that long naps (but not short ones) result in increased cortisol levels at the awakening. 33 Cortisol promotes energy availability, 34 which could

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

, M. , Vlahovich , N. , Hughes , D. , Appaneal , R. , Burke , L.M. , Lundy , B. , . . . Waddington , G. ( 2018 ). Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

correct low energy availability, poor iron status, or other nutrient deficiencies as these may alter performance of some protocols and/or the response to supplements. Note that vegetarians may respond differently to supplemental ingredients that are low in their diets (e.g., creatine, carnitine, and b

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Katherine Elizabeth Black, Alistair David Black and Dane Frances Baker

Metabolic Rate; EA = Energy Availability; PAL = Physical Activity Level. a Demographics is derived from baseline data. b Reported values have been converted from original form for comparison purposes. c Data represent those completing food data only. d Median (interquartile range) is reported for Burrows

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

composition while maintaining adequate energy availability for health and heavy training load • General support for training sessions and recovery between sessions, including strategic timing of nutrient intake around sessions • Where desired, periodic targeted low-CHO availability training to stimulate

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Holly Thorpe, Julie Brice and Anna Rolleston

Zealand) throughout and do not italicize Māori words. 2. RED-S is a condition that can occur in athletic women resulting in symptoms such as bone density loss, amenorrhea (chronic loss of menstruation), cardiovascular health problems, and a host of other issues as a result of low energy availability

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

,500 mg/day and 1,500 to 2,000 IU vitamin D are recommended to optimize bone health in athletes with low energy availability or menstrual dysfunction ( Thomas et al., 2016 ). Abbreviations: RDA = recommended dietary allowance; UL = upper limit; UVB = ultraviolet B. * See Larson-Meyer et al. ( 2018 ) for

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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress fractures and anterior cruciate ligament tears. These factors can include anatomical differences, altered biomechanics, and hormonal changes. Girls may also experience lower quadriceps and hip adduction strength and are susceptible to the female athlete triad (poor energy