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John Komar, Ross H. Sanders, Didier Chollet and Ludovic Seifert

This study compared interlimb coordination and indicators of swim efficiency and effectiveness between expert and recreational breaststroke swimmers. Arm-leg coordination of 8 expert and 10 recreational swimmers at two different paces, slow and sprint, were compared using relative phase between elbow and knee. For each participant, knee and elbow angles were assessed using a 3-dimensional video analysis system with four below and two above cameras. During each phase of the cycle, indicators of swim efficiency (intracyclic velocity variations) and effectiveness (horizontal distance, velocity peaks, acceleration peaks) were calculated. Two coordination patterns emerged between expert and recreational swimmers, with significant differences in the relative phase at the beginning of a cycle (−172.4° for experts and −106.6° for recreational swimmers) and the maximum value of relative phase (9.1° for experts and 45.9° for recreational swimmers; all P < .05). Experts’ coordination was associated with higher swim effectiveness (higher acceleration peak: 2.4 m/s2 for experts and 1.6 m/s2 for recreational swimmers) and higher distance covered by the center of mass during each phase of the cycle (all P < .05). This study emphasized how experts coordinate arms and legs to achieve effective behavior, therefore exhibiting flexibility, mainly in the timing of the glide phase, to adapt to different speed.

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Salomé Aubert, Julien Aucouturier, Jeremy Vanhelst, Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Caroline Ganière, Corinne Praznoczy, Benjamin Larras, Julien Schipman, Martine Duclos and David Thivel

our national expert panel carried out an updated evaluation of these physical activity indicators, which is briefly summarized in a recently published condensed article. 20 The purpose of this paper is to present the detailed findings from the France’s 2018 Report Card on physical activity for

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Johanna Belz, Jens Kleinert, Jeannine Ohlert, Thea Rau and Marc Allroggen

impaired well-being which might have led to downplaying or underreporting one’s symptoms for fear of stigmatization ( Reardon & Factor, 2010 ). In addition to validated screening questionnaires, expert clinical interviews are recommended in order to provide an external criterion for the results of the

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Nadia C. Valentini, Lisa M. Barnett, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Larissa Wagner Zanella and Rodrigo Flores Sartori

states. Specifically, we aimed to double back and reverse translate the PMSC, establish face and experts’ content validity and reliability; we also investigated the construct validity concerning interval consistency and confirmatory factorial analysis of three models. Methods Participants A total of 26

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Senlin Chen and Alex Garn

pedagogy scholars have done tremendous work to advance the research agenda on learning. Dr. Catherine D. Ennis was one the leading experts in the past 3 decades (1984–2017), who had a monumental impact on learning-related research in physical education. She left behind a wealth of knowledge relevant to

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Seoha Min, Sumin Koo and Jennifer Wilson

Sales of horticulture-related merchandise have grown gradually since 2003, and the retail value of this category was $34.3 billion in 2017 in the United States ( Euromonitor Passport, 2018) . Industry experts anticipate that the growth will continue due to the numerous physical, psychological, and

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Lisa M. Quintiliani, Marci K. Campbell, J. Michael Bowling, Susan Steck, Pamela S. Haines and Brenda M. DeVellis


A better understanding of identifying tailoring variables would improve message design. Tailoring to a behavior that a participant selects as one they would like to work on may increase message relevance, and thus effectiveness. This trial compared 3 groups: message tailored to physical activity as a participant-selected topic (choice), message tailored to physical activity as an expert-determined topic (expert), or nontailored message (comparison).


408 female college students received web-delivered computer-tailored messages on physical activity. Outcomes were immediate and 1-month follow-up changes in psychosocial, goal-related, and behavioral variables related to physical activity.


Participants were predominately non-Hispanic White (73.8%). Change in self-efficacy and goal commitment at immediate follow-up and vigorous physical activity at 1-month follow-up was greater in the expert versus comparison group. Change in goal commitment at immediate follow-up was lower in the choice versus expert group. In the expert group, those choosing physical activity as their selected topic perceived the goal to be easier at immediate follow-up compared with those receiving unmatched messages.


Findings supported tailoring to an expert-determined topic. However, based on the beneficial change in perceived goal difficulty when topics matched, future research should encourage synchrony between participant-selected topics and expert recommendations.

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Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Annemarie M.H. de Witte, Monique A.M. Berger, Daan J.J. Bregman and Dirk Jan H.E.J. Veeger

athlete and the wheelchair expert. At the elite level, wheelchair experts are likely to adopt scientific knowledge of research describing general effects of wheelchair settings on performance, 1 – 3 but effects are often described in qualitative general trends, rather than in quantitative effects. More

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Reabias de A. Pereira, José Luiz de B. Alves, João Henrique da C. Silva, Matheus da S. Costa and Alexandre S. Silva

of these apps, only 2 have been scientifically validated to date (ithlete and HRV4Training). 5 , 6 The rMSSD [root mean square of successive differences between RR intervals] index is available in these apps. Meanwhile, the smartphone app HRV Expert by CardioMood (CardioMood, Moscow, Russia

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Farzad Mohammadi, Abbas Bahram, Hasan Khalaji, Dale A. Ulrich and Farhad Ghadiri

Content Validity Index (CVI) Questionnaire ( Polit et al., 2007 ). Five experts in motor behavior with previous experience using the TGMD-2 commented on each scoring criterion of TGMD-3 based on “simplicity”, “clarity”, and “relevance” by using a 4-point Likert scale. After CVI was examined for each