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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

availability ( Burke et al., 2017 ). Meanwhile, both dietary approaches were associated with better race outcomes than chronic (3.5 week) exposure to a ketogenic low CHO, high-fat diet, despite its achievement of substantial (∼2.5 ×) increases in muscle fat oxidation ( Burke et al., 2017 ). This contrasts with

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi and Stefano Lazzer

pressures in rat spinotrapezius muscle . J Appl Physiol . 2005 ; 99 ( 4 ): 1516 – 1522 . doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00069.2005 13. Fernstrom M , Bakkman L , Tonkonogi M , et al . Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance

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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

. Consequently, our obese adolescent girls had more potential to reduce CRP levels than the obese children in the previously mentioned studies. The hormones leptin and adiponectin are counter regulated in vivo and exert opposing effects on glucose metabolism, fat oxidation, and insulin sensitivity ( 9 , 47

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

fat metabolism by repeated bouts of moderate endurance exercise . J Appl Physiol . 2007 ; 102 : 2158 – 2164 . PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01302.2006 17317872 10.1152/japplphysiol.01302.2006 37. Achten J , Jeukendup AE . Optimising fat oxidation through exercise and diet . Nutrition

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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

standing time during the day. 41 A recent study showed that, comparable with our findings, not only muscle activity but also fat oxidation and circulating glucose level increased with standing. 39 This indicates that including muscle activity, in favor of energy expenditure only, influences metabolic

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Hunter S. Waldman, Brandon D. Shepherd, Brendan Egan and Matthew J. McAllister

resistance to oxidative stress in young but not older adults . Age, 36 ( 6 ), 9727 . PubMed ID: 25380675 doi:10.1007/s11357-014-9727-z O’Malley , T. , Myette-Cote , E. , Durrer , C. , & Little , J.P. ( 2017 ). Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

higher reliance on fat oxidation, greater metabolic stress, and cellular adaptation ( Bartlett et al., 2015 ). Although careful integration of such strategies can enhance adaptation and performance ( Marquet et al., 2016 ), the potential implications on athlete health are relatively unknown. Accordingly

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Andrew J. Carnes and Sara E. Mahoney

affect fat oxidation and/or glycogen degradation at prolonged submaximal intensities. Further research is needed to elucidate how physiologic adaptations differ between CFE and POL, and from a practical perspective how this could impact their effect on events >5 km. Differences between CFE and POL could

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson and Anna Melin

. Despite the need for high carbohydrate intakes, performing selected training sessions in a glycogen-depleted state can promote training adaptations, such as increased fat oxidation ( Bartlett et al., 2015 ; Philip et al., 2012 ), which may be a favorable physiological adaptation during base

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Katja Krustrup Pedersen, Esben Lykke Skovgaard, Ryan Larsen, Mikkel Stengaard, Søren Sørensen and Kristian Overgaard

extend previous research and support the use of thigh-placed accelerometers for assessment of PA involving walking and running. References Achten , J. , Gleeson , M. , & Jeukendrup , A.E. ( 2002 ). Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation . Medicine & Science in