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Erik A. Willis, Amanda N. Szabo-Reed, Lauren T. Ptomey, Jeffery J. Honas, Felicia L. Steger, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

. 11033978 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801374 23. Astorino TA , Schubert MM , Palumbo E , Stirling D , Mcmillan DW . Effect of two doses of interval training on maximal fat oxidation in sedentary women . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2013 ; 45 ( 10 ): 1878 – 1886 . PubMed ID: 23531715 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e

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Hermann Zbinden-Foncea, Isabel Rada, Jesus Gomez, Marco Kokaly, Trent Stellingwerff, Louise Deldicque and Luis Peñailillo

neurotransmitters. 10 Beyond those effects on the central nervous system, it has also been suggested that high caffeine doses spares glycogen utilization by increasing fat oxidation and boosts β-endorphins and catecholamine release. 11 Furthermore, caffeine has evidenced improvements in force production by

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Stephen A. Mears, Kathryn Dickinson, Kurt Bergin-Taylor, Reagan Dee, Jack Kay and Lewis J. James

) compared with the PLA trial (2.41 [0.53] g·min −1 ; P  < .0001); however, during the WAT trial (2.82 [0.48] g·min −1 ), carbohydrate oxidation was similar to the 2 other trials ( P  = .088 vs PLA; P  = .148 vs CHO). Fat oxidation was greater in the PLA trial (0.52 [0.23] g·min −1 ) compared with the CHO

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Simon Fryer, Craig Paterson, Ian C. Perkins, Chris Gloster, Mark E.T. Willems and Julia A. Potter

improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists . European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115 ( 11 ), 2357 – 2365 . PubMed ID: 26175097 doi: 10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8 Cook , M.D. , Myers , S.D. , Gault , M.L. , & Willems , M.E.T. ( 2017 ). Blackcurrant alters physiological

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

availability ( Burke et al., 2017 ). Meanwhile, both dietary approaches were associated with better race outcomes than chronic (3.5 week) exposure to a ketogenic low CHO, high-fat diet, despite its achievement of substantial (∼2.5 ×) increases in muscle fat oxidation ( Burke et al., 2017 ). This contrasts with

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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

standing time during the day. 41 A recent study showed that, comparable with our findings, not only muscle activity but also fat oxidation and circulating glucose level increased with standing. 39 This indicates that including muscle activity, in favor of energy expenditure only, influences metabolic

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Hunter S. Waldman, Brandon D. Shepherd, Brendan Egan and Matthew J. McAllister

.1007/s11357-014-9727-z O’Malley , T. , Myette-Cote , E. , Durrer , C. , & Little , J.P. ( 2017 ). Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males . Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 42 ( 10 ), 1031 – 1035

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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

counter regulated in vivo and exert opposing effects on glucose metabolism, fat oxidation, and insulin sensitivity ( 9 , 47 ). The findings of this study indicate that CET produced a significant (although a time effect only) increase in adiponectin and decrease in leptin, reflecting an improved metabolic

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

fat metabolism by repeated bouts of moderate endurance exercise . J Appl Physiol . 2007 ; 102 : 2158 – 2164 . PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01302.2006 17317872 10.1152/japplphysiol.01302.2006 37. Achten J , Jeukendup AE . Optimising fat oxidation through exercise and diet . Nutrition

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Andrew J. Carnes and Sara E. Mahoney

affect fat oxidation and/or glycogen degradation at prolonged submaximal intensities. Further research is needed to elucidate how physiologic adaptations differ between CFE and POL, and from a practical perspective how this could impact their effect on events >5 km. Differences between CFE and POL could