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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

availability ( Burke et al., 2017 ). Meanwhile, both dietary approaches were associated with better race outcomes than chronic (3.5 week) exposure to a ketogenic low CHO, high-fat diet, despite its achievement of substantial (∼2.5 ×) increases in muscle fat oxidation ( Burke et al., 2017 ). This contrasts with

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

fat metabolism by repeated bouts of moderate endurance exercise . J Appl Physiol . 2007 ; 102 : 2158 – 2164 . PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01302.2006 17317872 10.1152/japplphysiol.01302.2006 37. Achten J , Jeukendup AE . Optimising fat oxidation through exercise and diet . Nutrition

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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

standing time during the day. 41 A recent study showed that, comparable with our findings, not only muscle activity but also fat oxidation and circulating glucose level increased with standing. 39 This indicates that including muscle activity, in favor of energy expenditure only, influences metabolic

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Hunter S. Waldman, Brandon D. Shepherd, Brendan Egan and Matthew J. McAllister

resistance to oxidative stress in young but not older adults . Age, 36 ( 6 ), 9727 . PubMed ID: 25380675 doi:10.1007/s11357-014-9727-z O’Malley , T. , Myette-Cote , E. , Durrer , C. , & Little , J.P. ( 2017 ). Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi and Stefano Lazzer

pressures in rat spinotrapezius muscle . J Appl Physiol . 2005 ; 99 ( 4 ): 1516 – 1522 . doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00069.2005 13. Fernstrom M , Bakkman L , Tonkonogi M , et al . Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

higher reliance on fat oxidation, greater metabolic stress, and cellular adaptation ( Bartlett et al., 2015 ). Although careful integration of such strategies can enhance adaptation and performance ( Marquet et al., 2016 ), the potential implications on athlete health are relatively unknown. Accordingly

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Andrew J. Carnes and Sara E. Mahoney

affect fat oxidation and/or glycogen degradation at prolonged submaximal intensities. Further research is needed to elucidate how physiologic adaptations differ between CFE and POL, and from a practical perspective how this could impact their effect on events >5 km. Differences between CFE and POL could

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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

. Consequently, our obese adolescent girls had more potential to reduce CRP levels than the obese children in the previously mentioned studies. The hormones leptin and adiponectin are counter regulated in vivo and exert opposing effects on glucose metabolism, fat oxidation, and insulin sensitivity ( 9 , 47

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

relatively unlimited pool size and capacity to support exercise at intensities up to ∼75–80% VO 2 peak. However, it should also be noted that most ultramarathon runners already have a high capacity for fat oxidation, regardless of dietary background. Furthermore, although targeted adaptation to a high

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

loss is the creation of an energy imbalance resulting in a net energy expenditure, and a number of supplements have been proposed to promote fat loss through a variety of mechanisms including increased fat oxidation and thermogenic effects (increased energy expenditure) ( Jeukendrup & Randell, 2011