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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

). Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males . Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 42 ( 10 ), 1031 – 1035 . PubMed ID: 28750585 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0641 10.1139/apnm-2016-0641 Peart , D.J. , Siegler , J.C. , & Vince

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Stephen A. Mears, Kathryn Dickinson, Kurt Bergin-Taylor, Reagan Dee, Jack Kay and Lewis J. James

) compared with the PLA trial (2.41 [0.53] g·min −1 ; P  < .0001); however, during the WAT trial (2.82 [0.48] g·min −1 ), carbohydrate oxidation was similar to the 2 other trials ( P  = .088 vs PLA; P  = .148 vs CHO). Fat oxidation was greater in the PLA trial (0.52 [0.23] g·min −1 ) compared with the CHO

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Hermann Zbinden-Foncea, Isabel Rada, Jesus Gomez, Marco Kokaly, Trent Stellingwerff, Louise Deldicque and Luis Peñailillo

neurotransmitters. 10 Beyond those effects on the central nervous system, it has also been suggested that high caffeine doses spares glycogen utilization by increasing fat oxidation and boosts β-endorphins and catecholamine release. 11 Furthermore, caffeine has evidenced improvements in force production by

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

availability ( Burke et al., 2017 ). Meanwhile, both dietary approaches were associated with better race outcomes than chronic (3.5 week) exposure to a ketogenic low CHO, high-fat diet, despite its achievement of substantial (∼2.5 ×) increases in muscle fat oxidation ( Burke et al., 2017 ). This contrasts with

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

fat metabolism by repeated bouts of moderate endurance exercise . J Appl Physiol . 2007 ; 102 : 2158 – 2164 . PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01302.2006 17317872 10.1152/japplphysiol.01302.2006 37. Achten J , Jeukendup AE . Optimising fat oxidation through exercise and diet . Nutrition

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

higher reliance on fat oxidation, greater metabolic stress, and cellular adaptation ( Bartlett et al., 2015 ). Although careful integration of such strategies can enhance adaptation and performance ( Marquet et al., 2016 ), the potential implications on athlete health are relatively unknown. Accordingly

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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

standing time during the day. 41 A recent study showed that, comparable with our findings, not only muscle activity but also fat oxidation and circulating glucose level increased with standing. 39 This indicates that including muscle activity, in favor of energy expenditure only, influences metabolic

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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

. Consequently, our obese adolescent girls had more potential to reduce CRP levels than the obese children in the previously mentioned studies. The hormones leptin and adiponectin are counter regulated in vivo and exert opposing effects on glucose metabolism, fat oxidation, and insulin sensitivity ( 9 , 47

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi and Stefano Lazzer

efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise . J Appl Physiol . 2007 ; 102 ( 5 ): 1844 – 1849 . doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01173.2006 10.1152/japplphysiol.01173.2006 17234801 14. Salvadego D , Lazzer S , Marzorati M , et

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Hunter S. Waldman, Brandon D. Shepherd, Brendan Egan and Matthew J. McAllister

.1007/s11357-014-9727-z O’Malley , T. , Myette-Cote , E. , Durrer , C. , & Little , J.P. ( 2017 ). Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males . Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 42 ( 10 ), 1031 – 1035