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Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Amanda E. Staiano

triglycerides and glucose were obtained on a Beckman Coulter DXC600 (Beckman Coulter Inc, Brea, CA). A continuous cardiometabolic risk score was computed following the recommendations of Eisenmann 13 as follows: BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP = [(2 × DBP) + SBP]/3), HDL-C, fasting blood glucose, and

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Ian Rollo, Oliver C. Witard and Stuart D. R. Galloway

a match ( Mohr et al., 2005 ; Reilly, 1997 ). At the metabolic level, the decline in muscle glycogen content during a soccer match ( Krustrup et al., 2006 ) is associated with a reduced work rate ( Ostojic & Mazic, 2002 ). As the brain is dependent on a supply of blood glucose ( Duelli & Kuschinsky

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Saowaluck Suntraluck, Hirofumi Tanaka and Daroonwan Suksom

a spirometer (Spirobank G, Medical International Research, Waukesha, WI, USA). Blood Analyses After 10 hr of overnight fasting, a venous blood sample was collected from the antecubital vein. Blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and

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James E. Peterman, Kalee L. Morris, Rodger Kram and William C. Byrnes

high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 4 increased fasting triglycerides, 3 , 5 increased resting blood pressure, 5 and impaired glucose tolerance. 5 , 6 Although early research focused on total daily sitting time, the duration of sitting bouts also has a negative impact on cardiometabolic

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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

loss of lean mass ( Mettler et al., 2010 ). Protein, however, stimulates insulin secretion which is known to inhibit fat oxidation. Essential amino acid mixes have been shown to be as potent as glucose in inducing insulin secretion ( Floyd et al., 1966 ). On the other hand, Impey et al. ( 2015

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John G. Seifert, Greg L. Paul, Dennis E. Eddy and Robert Murray

The effects of preexercise hyperinsulinemia on exercising plasma glucose, plasma insulin, and metabolic responses were assessed during 50 min cycling at 62% VO2max. Subjects were fed a 6% sucrose/glucose solution (LCHO) or a 20% maltodextrin/glucose solution (HCHO) to induce changes in plasma insulin. During exercise, subjects assessed perceived nauseousness and lightheadedness. By the start of exercise, plasma glucose and plasma insulin had increased. In the LCHO trial, plasma glucose values significantly decreased below the baseline value at 30 min of exercise. However, by 40 min, exercise plasma glucose and insulin values were similar to the baseline value. Exercise plasma glucose and insulin did not differ from baseline values in the HCHO trial. Ingestion of LCHO or HCHO was not associated with nausea or lightheadedness. It was concluded that the hyperinsulinemia induced by preexercise feediigs of CHO did not result in frank hypoglycemia or adversely affect sensory or physiological responses during 50 min of moderate-intensity cycling.

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Stephanie L. Stockwell, Lindsey R. Smith, Hannah M. Weaver, Daniella J. Hankins and Daniel P. Bailey

Cardiometabolic disease is an uncommon occurrence or cause of death in children. However, cardiometabolic risk markers such as obesity, high blood pressure, adverse lipid profile, and impaired glucose levels can begin to develop in childhood, increasing the likelihood of cardiometabolic disease in

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Pablo Antonio Valdés-Badilla, Carlos Gutiérrez-García, Mikel Pérez-Gutiérrez, Rodrigo Vargas-Vitoria and Antonio López-Fuenzalida

 = .05) and total score (Δ% = 0.001, p  = .000) regarding the CG on the posttest. Marin et al. ( 2009 ) Physical area: Anthropometric measurements Nutritional risk Physiological aspects: Blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HR, and BP Quality of life, distributed in four facets: (a

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Manuel D. Quinones and Peter W.R. Lemon

 al., 2008 ). In the only previous exercise study with HMS, Roberts et al. ( 2011 ) reported that vs. maltodextrin, HMS ingestion (1 g·kg BM −1 ) consumed 30 min before exercise blunted serum glucose and insulin response (eightfold lower) and increased fat oxidation during 150 min of cycling without any

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

The interaction of energetic substrates during exercise has been investigated for over 100 years ( Hawley et al., 2015 ). Endurance performance up to ∼3–4 hr appears to be carbohydrate dependent (skeletal muscle and hepatic glycogen, blood glucose, lactate and exogenous sources; Hawley & Leckey