E. Dean Ryan and Jeff Simons
Male college students (N= 39) learned two novel perceptual motor tasks differing in demand across a cognitive-motor continuum, under conditions of physical practice (PP), mental practice (MP), or no practice (NP). On each task, the PP group was given 12 actual trials; the MP group received one actual, nine mental, then two actual trials; and the NP group received one actual trial, 10 minutes rest, then two actual trials. Results showed no difference in learning between MP and NP groups on the predominantly motor task, with the PP group significantly superior to both. On the predominantly cognitive task, however, the MP group performed as well as the PP group, and both were significantly superior to the NP group. Two additional questions concerning the influences of imaging ability and relative frequency of mental practice rendered equivocal results.
E. Earlynn Lauer, Mark Lerman, Rebecca A. Zakrajsek and Larry Lauer
( Harwood, 2008 ; Henriksen, Stambulova, & Roessler, 2010 ). Mental skills training (MST) programs are typically designed to teach performers mental strategies (e.g., breathing, imagery, self-talk, journaling) in order to develop various mental skills (e.g., self-confidence, attentional focus; Vealey
Jamie Taber and Kat Longshore
in martial arts to determine the four most potentially useful mental skills for our population. Considering the martial arts research referenced herein, goal setting, self-talk, imagery, and relaxation emerged as particularly beneficial for this population. Goal setting was addressed in one study
Sandra E. Moritz, Craig R. Hall, Kathleen A. Martin and Eva Vadocz
Despite the advocacy of a confidence-enhancing function of mental imagery, the relationship between confidence and imagery has received little attention from sport researchers. The primary purpose of the present study was to identify the specific image content of confident athletes. Fifty-seven elite competitive rollerskaters completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R), the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ), and the State Sport Confidence Inventory (SSCI). Results revealed that high sport-confident athletes used more mastery and arousal imagery, and had better kinesthetic and visual imagery ability than low sport-confident athletes did. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that mastery imagery accounted for the majority of variance in SSCI scores (20%). The results of this study suggest that when it comes to sport confidence, the imaged rehearsal of specific sport skills may not be as important as the imagery of sport-related mastery experiences and emotions.
Britton W. Brewer, Adisa Haznadar, Dylan Katz, Judy L. Van Raalte and Albert J. Petitpas
the concept of a mental warm-up can be found in research on the effects of brief psychological interventions (e.g., goal setting, imagery, psyching-up, self-talk) implemented before the completion of sport or sport-related tasks (for a meta-analysis, see Brown & Fletcher, 2017 ). Following the logic
Vellapandian Ponnusamy, Michelle Guerrero and Jeffrey J. Martin
The quintessential goal of most sport psychology consultants is to teach athletes how to achieve optimal performance in any given circumstance. This is often accomplished through the implementation of a psychological skills training (PST) program wherein a set of psychological strategies (e.g., imagery
cognitive component of competitive state anxiety included cognitive restructuring, coping support, goal-setting, imagery, rational-emotive therapy, and self-talk (e.g., McCarthy, Jones, Harwood, & Davenport, 2010 ; Neil, Mellalieu, & Hanton, 2006 ; Rumbold, Fletcher, & Daniels, 2012 ). I decided that the
John Pates and Kieran Kingston
his confidence progressively for the last 2 years through playing so poorly. Furthermore, he struggled to concentrate because he had images of playing poor shots from his past experiences. In addition to the negative imagery, he would find himself engaged in negative self-talk (e.g., “I don’t want to