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Gabrielle Stubblefield, Jeffrey Tilly and Kathy Liu

process can help the clinician choose the most effective therapy during recovery after an injury. The healing process encompasses three overlapping phases: inflammatory, fibroblastic, and maturation-remodeling. 5 , 9 During these phases, the different tensile strength of the tissue repair affects the

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Nils Haller, Tobias Ehlert, Sebastian Schmidt, David Ochmann, Björn Sterzing, Franz Grus and Perikles Simon

objective and subjective measures is frequently observed in this respect. 31 It seems as both acute and chronic cfDNA increases depend on intensity and duration and thus, the degree of an inflammatory response, 18 , 25 , 26 but the exact time course of cfDNA is not yet comprehensively described for longer

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Adam D. Osmond, Dean J. Directo, Marcus L. Elam, Gabriela Juache, Vince C. Kreipke, Desiree E. Saralegui, Robert Wildman, Michael Wong and Edward Jo

they reported a condition that would have confounded or contraindicated the protocol and/or the interpretation of the results. In addition, individuals were excluded if they reported the daily use of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or other pain relievers, muscle relaxers, fish oil supplements

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Tom Clifford, Will Abbott, Susan Y. Kwiecien, Glyn Howatson and Malachy P. McHugh

mechanical stress to the contractile and noncontractile muscle apparatus, and then followed by a cascade of immunological-mediated processes that orchestrate repair and recovery. 5 – 7 Indeed, there is now a growing body of evidence that this inflammatory response is crucial to muscle regeneration after

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Goodman, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Robert Arnot

, 2015 ; Ludwig et al., 2014 ). Coffee consumption has been associated with multiple health benefits and reduced total mortality rates ( Ding et al., 2015 ; Je & Giovannucci, 2014 ), and these have been primarily attributed to CQA antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and blood vessel dilation effects

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Achraf Ammar, Stephen J. Bailey, Omar Hammouda, Khaled Trabelsi, Nabil Merzigui, Kais El Abed, Tarak Driss, Anita Hökelmann, Fatma Ayadi, Hamdi Chtourou, Adnen Gharbi and Mouna Turki

exercise has yet to be investigated. Given that the effects of playing surface on muscle damage and inflammatory and immune responses to physical exercise are poorly defined, and given the discrepancy in the existing literature assessing the effect of playing surface on physical performance, the purpose of

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Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle R. Lynch, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Suziane Ungari Cayres and Romulo Araújo Fernandes

) ( 36 ), which can lead to catabolic responses in bone tissue throughout inflammatory pathways ( 30 , 35 , 40 ). This potentially harmful effect of training on adolescents is not completely understood and should be considered by sporting and health professionals due to the relevance of bone formation

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

have been reported with the long-term use of CM (up to 4 years) when appropriate loading protocols are followed ( Schilling et al., 2001 ). In fact, some reports propose CM supplementation to be anti-inflammatory, and to reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress ( Deminice et al., 2013 ). In summary

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Irfan A. Khan and Kelley D. Henderson

. Other common nonoperative treatments include physical therapy, corticosteroid and hyaluronic acid injections, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). 4 Focused Clinical Question What is the efficacy of valgus knee braces in treating pain in patients who have medial compartment osteoarthritis

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Dan M. Cooper

ability of exercise to stimulate systemic immune, stress, and both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. The seminal observations by Ostrowski et al ( 75 ) in adults have been corroborated in children and adolescents ( 72 , 73 ). In retrospect, of course, a stress, “danger” type