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Masakazu Matsuoka, Hiroshi Kunimura and Koichi Hiraoka

effect and multiple comparison tests were repeated many times. Therefore, we cannot rule out the increase in type I error due to too many repeated tests causing probability inflation and the increase in type II error due to too much alpha adjustment. This limitation may have caused overestimation or

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Maurice Vergeer and Leon Mulder

correlated (e.g., minutes, goals and assists, position in the field), checks for multicollinearity were performed. The variance inflation factors (VIF; Cohen, Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2002 ) for both models are below the critical value of 10 (maximum VIF adoption model = 1.964, maximum VIF followers model = 4

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Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

met. Specifically, visual inspection of residual plots of regression models indicated that the regression assumption of homoscedasticity was met. Calculation of the variance inflation factor and tolerance indicated that multicollinearity was not present. Results Attitudes and Average PA Duration

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Bryan E. Denham

interactions. The study checked for multicollinearity using variance inflation factors (VIFs), requiring the VIF for each independent variable to appear between 1.0 and 10.0. For the second set of analyses, the study included sports in which members of racial and ethnic minorities did and did not participate

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Rebecca A. Ashley and Andrea R. Steele

and athletic identities and the student-athletes’ GPAs. Collinearity was not a concern in the analysis, as the variance inflation factor was 1.0 ( Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black, 1998 ). Together, the student-athletes’ academic and athletic identities explained 16.3% of the variance in their GPAs, F

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Chien-Chih Chou, Kuan-Chou Chen, Mei-Yao Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu and Chung-Ju Huang

significant interaction effects that were identified, whereas multiple comparisons were used to follow-up on any significant main effects. To control for experiment-wise inflation of α, additional Bonferroni adjustments were made. Small to moderate ESs were observed for each of the EF domains of interest (0

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Jan Haut, Freya Gassmann, Eike Emrich, Tim Meyer and Christian Pierdzioch

gives some indication that success only has relative impact, and additional factors are strongly affecting the image of athletes and nations, too: For less successful countries, a single gold medal may increase international attention strongly, while more frequent winning may lead to inflation, i

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Ross Armstrong, Christopher Michael Brogden and Matt Greig

investigated by calculating the variance inflation factor and tolerance statistic which indicated that multicollinearity was within acceptable levels. 33 – 35 The physiological responses of heart rate and RPE of pooled dancers and hypermobile versus nonhypermobile dancers during the DAFT were analyzed using a

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Jakob Tarp, Anna Bugge, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Anders Grøntved and Niels Wedderkopp

indication of problematic collinearity was detected (variance inflation factors did not exceed 1.92) and estimates were robust to removal of observations with standardized residuals above/below 2 SD. As the primary outcome we created a standardized composite score 25 of the cardiometabolic risk factors

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Beth A. Cianfrone, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove and Alyssa L. Tavormina

) significantly predicted number of tickets purchased. Table 4 Predictors of Number of Tickets Sold Variable B SE β p Variance inflation factor Constant 300.56 197.57   .135   Number of games/events offered 18.78 7.94 .288 .024* 1.19 Number of e-mails sent 33.04 6.47 .616 .000*** 1.13 Ticket cost of game/event −2