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Rudolph H. Dressendorfer, Stewart R. Petersen, Shona E. Moss Lovshin and Carl L. Keen

This study examined the effects of intense endurance training on basal plasma and 24-hour urinary calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) levels in 9 male competitive cyclists. The supervised training program followed a baseline period and included a volume phase (6 weeks, averaging 87% of maximal heart rate [HRmax]), an interval phase (18 days, 100% of HRmax), and a 10-day unloading taper. The primary training outcome measure was 20-km time-trial cycling performance. Subjects ate unrestricted diets and maintained their weight. Compared to baseline, performance improved significantly (p < .05), while mineral metabolism was not significantly different after the volume phase. However, after the interval phase, renal Ca excretion increased (p < .05) and plasma Ca fell slightly below the clinical norm. As compared to the interval phase, urinary Ca decreased (p < .05), plasma Ca increased (p < .05), and performance further improved (p < .05) after the taper. Whereas Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu metabolism remained unchanged throughout the study, greater renal Ca excretion was associated with very high intensity interval training.

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Stephen F. Burns, Hnin Hnin Oo and Anh Thanh Thuy Tran

The current study examined the effect of sprint interval exercise on postexercise oxygen consumption, respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), substrate oxidation, and blood pressure in adolescents. Participants were 10 normal-weight healthy youth (7 female), age 15–18 years. After overnight fasts, each participant undertook 2 trials in a random balanced order: (a) two 30-s bouts of sprint interval exercise on a cycle ergometer and (b) rested in the laboratory for an equivalent period. Timematched measurements of oxygen consumption, RER, and blood pressure were made 90 min into recovery, and substrate oxidation were calculated over the time period. Total postexercise oxygen uptake was significantly higher in the exercise than control trial over the 90 min (mean [SD]: control 20.0 [6.0] L, exercise 24.8 [9.8] L; p = .030). After exercise, RER was elevated above control but then fell rapidly and was lower than control 30–60 min postexercise, and fat oxidation was significantly higher in the exercise than control trial 45–60 min postexercise. However, total fat oxidation did not differ between trials (control 4.5 [2.5] g, exercise 5.4 [2.7] g; p = .247). Post hoc tests revealed that systolic blood pressure was significantly lower than in control at 90 min postexercise (control 104 [10] mm Hg, exercise 99 [10] mm Hg; p < .05). These data indicate that acute sprint interval exercise leads to short-term increases in oxygen uptake and reduced blood pressure in youth. The authors suggest that health outcomes in response to sprint interval training be examined in children.

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Martin Buchheit and Alireza Rabbani

The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between performance of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) and the 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) and to compare the sensitivity of both tests to training. Fourteen young soccer players performed both tests before and after an 8-wk training intervention, which included 6 sessions/wk: 2 resistance training sessions, 2 high-intensity interval training sessions after technical training (4 sets of 3:30 min of generic running and small-sided games [4v4] during the first and second 4-wk periods, respectively [90–95% maximal HR], interspersed with 3 min at 60–70% maximal HR), and 2 tactical-only training sessions. There was a large correlation between 30-15IFT and Yo-YoIR1 (r = .75, 90% confidence limits [CL] 0.57;0.86). While within-test percentage changes suggested a greater sensitivity to training for the Yo-YoIR1 (+35%, 90%CL 24;45) than for the 30-15IFT (+7%; 4;10), these changes were similarly rated as almost certain (with chances for greater/similar/lower values after training of 100/0/0 for both tests) and moderate, ie, standardized difference, ES = +1.2 90%CL (0.9;1.5) for Yo-YoIR1 and ES = +1.1 (0.7;1.5) for 30-15IFT. The difference in the change between the 2 tests was clearly trivial (0/100/0, ES = –0.1, 90%CL –0.1;–0.1). Both tests might evaluate slightly different physical capacities, but their sensitivity to training is almost certainly similar. These results also highlight the importance of using standardized differences instead of percentage changes in performance to assess the actual training effect of an intervention.

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24 24 6 6 Interval Training Intensity Affects Energy Intake Compensation in Obese Men Shaea A. Alkahtani * Nuala M. Byrne * Andrew P. Hills * Neil A. King * 12 2014 24 24 6 6 595 595 604 604 10.1123/ijsnem.2013-0032 Combined Glucose Ingestion and Mouth Rinsing Improves Sprint Cycling

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and Therapists Hal C. Strough * PhD, ATC, ATR Jeffrey W. Wimer * PhD, ATC Janelle A. Wapola * MA, RHIA 1 2014 19 19 1 1 32 32 35 35 10.1123/ijatt.2012-0099 Research Report High-Intensity Interval Training for Improvement of Overhand Throwing Velocity Meaghan E. Maddigan * MSc David G. Behm

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Supplementation Without Affecting the Adaptive Response to Exercise Antoni Sureda * Miguel D. Ferrer * Antonia Mestre * Josep A. Tur * Antoni Pons * 2 2013 23 23 1 1 31 31 39 39 10.1123/ijsnem.23.1.31 The Effects of Chronic Sodium Bicarbonate Ingestion and Interval Training in Highly Trained Rowers

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26 26 3 3 High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals Catia Martins * Irina Kazakova * Marit Ludviksen * Ingar Mehus * Ulrik Wisloff * Bard Kulseng * Linda

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.2019-0118 jsep.2019-0118 Psychological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training: A Comparison of Graded Walking and Ungraded Running at Equivalent Metabolic Loads Abby R. Fleming * Nic Martinez * Larry H. Collins * Candi D. Ashley * Maureen Chiodini * Brian J. Waddell * Marcus W

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Erik A. Willis, Amanda N. Szabo-Reed, Lauren T. Ptomey, Jeffery J. Honas, Felicia L. Steger, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

exercise include lack of time and interest in commonly prescribed activities (eg, brisk walking/running), which are perceived as repetitive and boring. 8 – 11 With the intention of reducing the time commitment associated with exercise, short-duration high-intensity sprint and interval training (HIIT

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of Self-Control Strength Indeed Related to Impaired Attention Regulation? Chris Englert * Kris Zwemmer * Alex Bertrams * Raôul R.D. Oudejans * 4 2015 37 2 127 137 10.1123/jsep.2014-0219 Affective and Enjoyment Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Overweight-to-Obese and