This review examines the evidence that the level of physical activity (PA) or total energy expenditure during adolescence affects body adiposity in the obese and nonobese adolescent population. Several cross-sectional studies suggested that obese children were less physically active than their nonobese peers, but there was no consistent difference in the total energy expenditure. The likelihood that infants of obese mothers become obese at age 1 year is greater if their total energy expenditure (using the doubly labeled water technique) is lower at age 3 months. Many interventional studies in the general adolescent population show a small (1-3% body fat) reduction in adiposity as a result of physical training. It appears, though, that programs longer than one year are more efficacious than shorter programs. Lifestyle activities (e.g., walking to and from school) appear to have a more lasting effect than regimented activities (e.g., calisthenics or jogging).
Oded Bar-Or and Tom Baranowski
Thomas L. McKenzie, James F. Sallis, Paul Rosengard and Kymm Ballard
SPARK [Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids], in its current form, is a brand that represents a collection of exemplary, research-based, physical education and physical activity programs that emphasize a highly active curriculum, on-site staff development, and follow-up support. Given its complexity (e.g., multiple school levels, inclusion of both physical education and self-management curricula), SPARK features both diverse instructional and diverse curricular models. SPARK programs were initially funded by the NIH as two separate elementary and middle school intervention studies, and the curriculum and instructional models used in them embody the HOPE (Health Optimizing Physical Education) model. This paper reviews background information and studies from both the initial grants (1989–2000) and the dissemination (1994-present) phases of SPARK, identifies program evolution, and describes dissemination efforts and outcomes. Procedures used in SPARK may serve as models for others interested in researching and disseminating evidence-based physical education and physical activity programs.
Jeffrey J. Martin, Nate McCaughtry, Pamela Kulinna, Donetta Cothran and Roberta Faust
The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of mentoring-based professional development on physical education teachers’ efficacy. Experienced mentor teachers were paired (n = 15) with inexperienced protégé teachers (n = 15) at the beginning of a yearlong intervention study. It was hypothesized that teachers would increase their efficacy to use pedometers and computers to enhance instruction, and reduce their computer anxiety. Repeated-measures ANOVAs for mentors and protégés revealed a variety of significant main effects. We found increases in computer and pedometer efficacy. A second set of repeated-measures ANOVAs based on mentors’, protégés’, and control groups’ scores revealed a significant interaction for computer efficacy, indicating that both mentors and protégés significantly increased their computer efficacy compared with the control group. Finally, a significant interaction effect was also found for pedometer efficacy, again indicating that both groups significantly increased their efficacy compared with control teachers.
Riina A. Kekkonen, Tommi J. Vasankari, Timo Vuorimaa, Tari Haahtela, Ilkka Julkunen and Riitta Korpela
Heavy exercise is associated with an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections. Strenuous exercise also causes gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In previous studies probiotics have reduced respiratory tract infections and GI symptoms in general populations including children, adults, and the elderly. These questions have not been studied in athletes before. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotics on the number of healthy days, respiratory infections, and GI-symptom episodes in marathon runners in the summer. Marathon runners (N = 141) were recruited for a randomized, double-blind intervention study during which they received Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or placebo for a 3-mo training period. At the end of the training period the subjects took part in a marathon race, after which they were followed up for 2 wk. The mean number of healthy days was 79.0 in the LGG group and 73.4 in the placebo group (P = 0.82). There were no differences in the number of respiratory infections or GI-symptom episodes. The duration of GI-symptom episodes in the LGG group was 2.9 vs. 4.3 d in the placebo group during the training period (P = 0.35) and 1.0 vs. 2.3 d, respectively, during the 2 wk after the marathon (P = 0.046). LGG had no effect on the incidence of respiratory infections or GI-symptom episodes in marathon runners, but it seemed to shorten the duration of GI-symptom episodes.
Virginie Nicaise, Noe C. Crespo and Simon Marshall
Even when objective physical activity (PA) measures are preferred, many intervention studies with Latina women rely on self-reports because they are more feasible and the type and domain of PA is of interest.
This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of the IPAQ for detecting intervention-related changes in physical activity compared with accelerometer measurement among Latinas.
In March 2007, a community sample of 94 women (mean age = 36.31 ± 9.1 yr; mean body mass index = 31.37 ± 7.13) participated in a 12-week pedometer-based intervention to increase moderate intensity physical activity (MPA). Participants completed the Spanish-language International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Sp-IPAQ; telephone, long form) and wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days at baseline and postintervention.
Both the IPAQ and the ActiGraph accelerometer detected intervention-related increases in MPA; however, these changes were largely uncorrelated. The IPAQ did not have acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity before and after the intervention when compared with objective assessments.
Data suggest that it is important to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the IPAQ with Spanish-speaking participants and further research is needed to accurately measure intervention effectiveness using self-reports of PA in Latinas.
Cory J. Greever, John Sirard and Sofiya Alhassan
The purpose of this study was to examine the temporal patterns of preschoolers’ physical activity (PA) levels during a typical outdoor free playtime.
Baseline playtime accelerometer counts (4.3 ± 0.8 days) from 3 preschool PA intervention studies were used (n = 326 children, age = 4.0 ± 0.8 years). Data were collected using 15-second epochs and classified into sedentary, light, or moderate-tovigorous physical activity (MVPA). Patterns of change during playtime were analyzed using orthogonal polynomial comparisons.
For all ages, there was a U-shaped pattern of change for the percent of epochs classified as sedentary [F(1, 323) = 47.12, P < .001) and an inverted U-shaped pattern of change for the percent of epochs classified as MVPA [F(1,323) = 32.15, P < .001]. Age-stratified analyses indicated that the 3-year-olds maintained the decrease in sedentary time [F(2,323) = 6.408, P = .002] and the increase in MVPA [F(2,323) = 3.2, P = .04] to a greater extent than the 4- and 5-year-olds.
Preschool children gradually became more active during the first 10 to 15 minutes of outdoor gross motor playtime and less active over the final 10 to 15 minutes of playtime. During the second half of playtime 3-year-olds maintained these changes to a greater degree than 4- and 5-year-olds.
Thomas A. Haugen, Espen Tønnessen, Jonny Hisdal and Stephen Seiler
The overall objective of this review was to investigate the role and development of sprinting speed in soccer. Time–motion analyses show that short sprints occur frequently during soccer games. Straight sprinting is the most frequent action before goals, both for the scoring and assisting player. Straight-line sprinting velocity (both acceleration and maximal sprinting speed), certain agility skills, and repeated-sprint ability are shown to distinguish groups from different performance levels. Professional players have become faster over time, indicating that sprinting skills are becoming more and more important in modern soccer. In research literature, the majority of soccer-related training interventions have provided positive effects on sprinting capabilities, leading to the assumption that all kinds of training can be performed with success. However, most successful intervention studies are time consuming and challenging to incorporate into the overall soccer training program. Even though the principle of specificity is clearly present, several questions remain regarding the optimal training methods within the larger context of the team-sport setting. Considering time-efficiency effects, soccer players may benefit more by performing sprint-training regimens similar to the progression model used in strength training and by world-leading athletics practitioners, compared with the majority of guidelines that traditionally have been presented in research literature.
Thomas G. Seabourne, Robert S. Weinberg, Allen Jackson and Richard M. Suinn
The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effectiveness of different types of mental intervention procedures on karate performance. Subjects were 43 male volunteer students enrolled in self-defense classes at a university. They were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: individualized, nonindividualized, package, placebo control, and control. Karate performance evaluations (i.e., skill, combinations, sparring) were administered during the 5th (baseline), 10th, and 15th weeks of classes. All experimental groups received handouts, mini-strategies, manipulation checks, and interviews to aid them in their practice and training of their mental strategies. Thus, over the 10-week period, subjects spent a minimum of 17 hours practicing their cognitive strategies. Data were analyzed by a series of 5 x 2 (treatment X trials) multivariate analyses of variance. Results indicated that the individualized and package groups performed significantly better than all other groups on the karate performance measures of combinations and sparring. No other between-group differences were found. These results are supported by previous research (e.g., Kirschenbaum & Bale, 1980; Silva, 1982) which demonstrates the effectiveness of individualized and packaged intervention strategies in enhancing performance. Additional well controlled intervention studies are imperative before definitive statements can be put forth.
Hayley E. Christian, Carri Westgarth, Adrian Bauman, Elizabeth A. Richards, Ryan E. Rhodes, Kelly R. Evenson, Joni A. Mayer and Roland J. Thorpe Jr.
Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to nondog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research.
A review of published studies (1990−2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was conducted (N = 29). Studies estimating the relationship between dog ownership and PA were grouped to create a pointestimate using meta-analysis.
Most studies were conducted in the last 5 years, were cross-sectional, and sampled adults from Australia or the United States. Approximately 60% of DO walked their dog, with a median duration and frequency of 160 minutes/week and 4 walks/week, respectively. Meta-analysis showed DO engage in more walking and PA than NDO and the effect sizes are small to moderate (d = 0.26 and d = 0.16, respectively). Three studies provided evidence of a directional relationship between dog ownership and walking.
Longitudinal and interventional studies would provide stronger causal evidence for the relationship between dog ownership and PA. Improved knowledge of factors associated with dog walking will guide intervention research.
Richard Larouche, Travis John Saunders, Guy Edward John Faulkner, Rachel Colley and Mark Tremblay
The impact of active school transport (AST) on daily physical activity (PA) levels, body composition and cardiovascular fitness remains unclear.
A systematic review was conducted to examine differences in PA, body composition and cardiovascular fitness between active and passive travelers. The Medline, PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, and ProQuest databases were searched and 10 key informants were consulted. Quality of evidence was assessed with GRADE and with the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool for quantitative studies.
Sixty-eight different studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies found that active school travelers were more active or that AST interventions lead to increases in PA, and the quality of evidence is moderate. There is conflicting, and therefore very low quality evidence, regarding the associations between AST and body composition indicators, and between walking to/from school and cardiovascular fitness; however, all studies with relevant measures found a positive association between cycling to/from school and cardiovascular fitness; this evidence is of moderate quality.
These findings suggest that AST should be promoted to increase PA levels in children and adolescents and that cycling to/from school is associated with increased cardiovascular fitness. Intervention studies are needed to increase the quality of evidence.