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Nicole C. George, Charles Kahelin, Timothy A. Burkhart and David M. Andrews

on ground reaction forces, joint torques and joint reaction forces in drop landings . J Biomech . 2006 ; 39 : 119 – 124 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.10.036 16271595 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.10.036 5. Schmitt S , Günther M . Human leg impact: energy dissipation

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David Cruz-Díaz, Kyung-Min Kim, Fidel Hita-Contreras, Marco Bergamin, Agustin Aibar-Almazán and Antonio Martínez-Amat

mechanics during functional tasks and self-reported impaired function. 11 The flexed position in the lower limbs during Tai Chi practice is possibly linked to improvements in the range of motion of the ankle joint, as well as in the ankle joint torque force, identified as a contributing factor for postural

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Dustin J. Oranchuk, André R. Nelson, Adam G. Storey and John B. Cronin

30701597 18. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kanehisa H. Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001

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Steven Eustace, Richard Michael Page and Matt Greig

.4085/1062-6050-48.3.23 10.4085/1062-6050-48.3.23 24067150 6. Czaplicki A , Jarocka M , Walawski J . Isokinetic identification of knee joint torques before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction . PLoS One . 2015 ; 10 ( 12 ): 0144283 . PubMed ID: 26646385 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144283 10

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Fawaz A. Alwadani, Huaqing Liang and Alexander S. Aruin

& Vieira, 2017 ; Lin & Nussbaum, 2012 ). Moreover, it was reported that the plantarflexion stance is associated with an increase in the soleus muscle activation, and it was reasoned that the calf muscle activity might result in a noise-like fluctuation in the ankle joint torque to sufficiently control the

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Daniel C. McFarland, Alexander G. Brynildsen and Katherine R. Saul

experimental kinematics. Reserve actuators were included to provide additional joint torque where required to track kinematics. 29 Mean root mean squared reserve torque was <1.0 N·m for all coordinates for all trials; simulations requiring reserve torque >5 N·m are reported (Table  1 ). Of the 120 simulations

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James Hackney, Jade McFarland, David Smith and Clinton Wallis

part of natural movement in nonhuman vertebrates ( Shen & Seipel, 2015 ) and insects ( Dudek & Full, 2006 ), and in humans ( Minetti, 1998 ; Prilutsky & Zatsiorsky, 2002 ). Second, research implies that the multiple sources of joint torque through the lower body converge to predictable force at the

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Katie A. Conway and Jason R. Franz

, 116 ( 3 ), 525 – 538 . PubMed ID: 9372302 doi:10.1007/PL00005781 10.1007/PL00005781 DeVita , P. , & Hortobagyi , T. ( 2000 ). Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . Journal of Applied Physiology, 88 ( 5 ), 1804 – 1811 . doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10

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Hatice Mujde Ayık and Michael J. Griffin

strategies defined by joint torques . Gait Posture . 1999 ; 10 : 161 – 170 . PubMed ID: 10502650 doi:10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00032-6 10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00032-6 10502650 15. Sari HM , Griffin MJ . Postural stability when walking: effect of the frequency and magnitude of lateral oscillatory motion

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin and Antonio Dello Iacono

. 1989 ; 409 : 451 – 471 . PubMed ID: 2585297 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017507 10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017507 2585297 46. Coratella G , Bellin G , Beato M , Schena F . Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps . J Sports Sci . 2015 ; 33 ( 12 ): 1276