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Kosuke Fujita, Masatoshi Nakamura, Hiroki Umegaki, Takuya Kobayashi, Satoru Nishishita, Hiroki Tanaka, Satoko Ibuki and Noriaki Ichihashi

15 seconds, respectively. Statistical Analysis SPSS ver. 17 (IBM Japan Ltd) was used for statistical analysis. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, condition × period) was used to evaluate differences in final angle, muscle tendon unit stiffness, and passive knee joint torque at the

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Jeffrey G. Williams, Lauryn Darnall and Conrad Schumann

– 436 . PubMed ID: 24214927 doi:10.1177/0363546513508537 24214927 10.1177/0363546513508537 2. Aguinaldo AL , Buttermore J , Chambers H . Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various levels . J Appl Biomech . 2007 ; 23 ( 1 ): 42 – 51 . PubMed ID

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Dustin J. Oranchuk, André R. Nelson, Adam G. Storey and John B. Cronin

30701597 18. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kanehisa H. Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001

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Hardeep Singh, Mark Lee, Matthew J. Solomito, Christian Merrill and Carl Nissen

.1080/15438627.2017.1282361 28128007 15. Aguinaldo AL , Buttermore J , Chambers H . Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various levels . J Appl Biomech . 2007 ; 23 ( 1 ): 42 – 51 . PubMed ID: 17585177 doi:10.1123/jab.23.1.42 10.1123/jab.23.1.42 17585177 16. Matsuo T

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Christopher D. Ramos, Melvin Ramey, Rand R. Wilcox and Jill L. McNitt-Gray

.1007/BF00429743 10.1007/BF00429743 499190 28. Muraki Y , Ae M , Koyama H , Yokozawa T . Joint torque and power of the takeoff leg in the long jump . Int J Sport Heal Sci . 2008 ; 6 : 21 – 32 . doi:10.5432/ijshs.6.21 10.5432/ijshs.6.21

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

pointed out above, the lower postural stability of overweight/obese children (8–12 years old) and adolescents could be due to deficient muscle force production. Following the inverted pendulum model for upright stance, the higher the body mass the larger and faster the joint torques to maintain stability

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Hatice Mujde Ayık and Michael J. Griffin

strategies defined by joint torques . Gait Posture . 1999 ; 10 : 161 – 170 . PubMed ID: 10502650 doi:10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00032-6 10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00032-6 10502650 15. Sari HM , Griffin MJ . Postural stability when walking: effect of the frequency and magnitude of lateral oscillatory motion

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Jaqueline M. Porto, Sállua B. Spilla, Luciana M. Cangussu-Oliveira, Renato C. Freire Júnior, Ana Paula M. Nakaishi and Daniela C.C. de Abreu

doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0245-2 Crozara , L.F. , Morcelli , M.H. , Marques , N.R. , Hallal , C.Z. , Spinoso , D.H. , Almeida Neto , A.F. , . . . Gonçalves , M. ( 2013 ). Motor readiness and joint torque production in lower limbs of older women fallers and non-fallers . Journal of

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Danielle L. Gyemi, Charles Kahelin, Nicole C. George and David M. Andrews

influence of soft tissue movement on ground reaction forces, joint torques and joint reaction forces in drop landings . J Biomech. 2006 ; 39 ( 1 ): 119 – 124 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.10.036 16271595 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.10.036 4. Liu W , Nigg BM . A

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Herman van Werkhoven and Stephen J. Piazza

interest during locomotion as the long lever of the foot permits the GRF to act at a substantial distance from the joint during locomotion. For this reason, internal ankle joint torques tend to be large and typically vary considerably as the magnitude, direction, and point of application of the GRF vector