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Jeffrey G. Williams, Lauryn Darnall and Conrad Schumann

– 436 . PubMed ID: 24214927 doi:10.1177/0363546513508537 24214927 10.1177/0363546513508537 2. Aguinaldo AL , Buttermore J , Chambers H . Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various levels . J Appl Biomech . 2007 ; 23 ( 1 ): 42 – 51 . PubMed ID

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Kosuke Fujita, Masatoshi Nakamura, Hiroki Umegaki, Takuya Kobayashi, Satoru Nishishita, Hiroki Tanaka, Satoko Ibuki and Noriaki Ichihashi

15 seconds, respectively. Statistical Analysis SPSS ver. 17 (IBM Japan Ltd) was used for statistical analysis. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, condition × period) was used to evaluate differences in final angle, muscle tendon unit stiffness, and passive knee joint torque at the

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Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Jon Torres-Unda, Brian Hanley and Nicholas Tam

.1080/02640414.2013.777763 10. Hoga K , Ae M , Enomoto Y , Fujii N . Athletics: mechanical energy flow in the recovery leg of elite race walkers . Sport Biomech . 2003 ; 2 ( 1 ): 1 – 13 . doi:10.1080/14763140308522804 10.1080/14763140308522804 11. Hoga K , Ae M , Enomoto Y , et al . Joint torque and

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Dustin J. Oranchuk, André R. Nelson, Adam G. Storey and John B. Cronin

30701597 18. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kanehisa H. Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001

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Thomas M. Comyns, Eamonn P. Flanagan, Sean Fleming, Evan Fitzgerald and Damian J. Harper

stiffness during eccentric phase in rebound jumps on ankle joint torque at midpoint . Int J Sports Med . 2007 ; 28 ( 1 ): 66 – 71 . PubMed ID: 17024641 doi:10.1055/s-2006-923903. 10.1055/s-2006-923903 17024641 17. McBride JM , McCaulley GO , Cormie P . Influence of preactivity and eccentric

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

pointed out above, the lower postural stability of overweight/obese children (8–12 years old) and adolescents could be due to deficient muscle force production. Following the inverted pendulum model for upright stance, the higher the body mass the larger and faster the joint torques to maintain stability

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Andrzej Kochanowicz, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Stanisław Sawczyn, Paweł Cięszczyk and Kazimierz Kochanowicz

influence the development of rapid muscle strength is the co-contraction of antagonistic muscles. In adults, it has been shown that strength training reduces antagonist coactivation and thus results in greater net joint torque ( 2 , 40 , 43 ). Studies by Grosset et al ( 21 ) and Lambertz et al ( 34

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Steven Eustace, Richard Michael Page and Matt Greig

.4085/1062-6050-48.3.23 10.4085/1062-6050-48.3.23 24067150 6. Czaplicki A , Jarocka M , Walawski J . Isokinetic identification of knee joint torques before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction . PLoS One . 2015 ; 10 ( 12 ): 0144283 . PubMed ID: 26646385 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144283 10

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Jared R. Fletcher and Brian R. MacIntosh

Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 4. Pandy MG . Moment arm of a muscle force . Exerc Sport

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Hatice Mujde Ayık and Michael J. Griffin

strategies defined by joint torques . Gait Posture . 1999 ; 10 : 161 – 170 . PubMed ID: 10502650 doi:10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00032-6 10.1016/S0966-6362(99)00032-6 10502650 15. Sari HM , Griffin MJ . Postural stability when walking: effect of the frequency and magnitude of lateral oscillatory motion