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Justin P. Waxman, Kevin R. Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen and Jeffrey B. Taylor

(Version 5, C-Motion, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA) using custom-written Matlab (Version 2015a, Mathworks, Natick, MA) code. Hip joint centers were calculated using the Bell method, 37 whereas knee and ankle joint centers were calculated as the centroid position of the medial and lateral femoral epicondyles

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Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

is atrophied due to the effects of the sedentary modern lifestyle. 41 – 43 The RA and lateral abdominal wall (LAW) muscles (external oblique, IO, and TrA) play an important role, not only in appearance, muscle strength, and endurance, but also in LC. Although various electrical stimulation devices

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Matthew D. Freke, Kay Crossley, Trevor Russell, Kevin J. Sims and Adam Semciw

also be measured as the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) of the knee, consists of a combination of femoral IR, hip adduction, knee flexion, and knee abduction. 9 Healthy people with weak hip abductors and external rotators may demonstrate increased knee valgus during SLSq. 10 – 13 Lateral

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Chad Van Ramshorst and Woochol Joseph Choi

tuberosity with the terminal contact point being the lateral gluteal musculature (Figure  1 ). In technique 2, participants were instructed to fall choreographically through ankle inversion, knee flexion, and hip flexion with dispersion of forces up the anterolateral surface of the shank. Contact was

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Hae-rim Han, Chung-hwi Yi, Sung-hyun You, Heon-seock Cynn, One-bin Lim and Jae-ik Son

Biomechanically, the gluteus medius (GMED) controls femoral motion during dynamic lower-extremity motion, and counteracts gravity to stabilize the pelvis in a single-leg stance. 1 , 2 However, when the GMED becomes weak, numerous neuromuscular problems including hip joint pathology, lateral hip

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Oladipo O. Eddo, Bryndan W. Lindsey, Shane V. Caswell, Matt Prebble and Nelson Cortes

medial compartment loads. 11 Results from a recent systematic review confirm the effectiveness of various gait modification strategies with real-time biofeedback for reducing the magnitude of peak KAM. 12 A primary goal of gait modification is to reduce peak KAM by lateralizing the resultant vector of

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Steven J. Obst, Lee Barber, Ashton Miller and Rod S. Barrett

-tendon junction) and medial and lateral malleolus (from 1 cm proximal to 1 cm distal to the malleoli). AT cross-sections were manually segmented from the calcaneal notch to the soleus muscle-tendon junction at ∼5–10 mm intervals. Because of ultrasound attenuation at the bone interface, only a partial segmentation

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Alif Laila Tisha, Ashley Allison Armstrong, Amy Wagoner Johnson and Citlali López-Ortiz

Similarly, using shear wave ultrasound elastography, Brandenburg et al 33 found greater passive muscle stiffness in the lateral gastrocnemius muscle of children with CP and von Walden et al 17 found a 2-fold increase in the passive stiffness of the forearm, both in comparison with TD muscle. Thus, in vivo

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Jonathan M. Williams, Michael Gara and Carol Clark

assess balance during various double- and single-leg balance tasks demonstrating good to excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC > .7). 6 Landing Task Participants performed single-leg hopping with a “fixed” landing in the forward, lateral, and medial directions. Floor markers were

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Sajad Bagherian, Khodayar Ghasempoor, Nader Rahnama and Erik A. Wikstrom

injury risk in male football players, 9 female college athletes, 10 and male military candidates. 11 The lateral step-down (LSD) test can be used to rate the quality of movement based on the alignment of the trunk, pelvis, and knee 12 with scores ranging from 0 to 6. 13 The Y balance test (YBT) was