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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

et al., 2017 ), with many athletes consuming the majority of their protein in their evening meal, with less consumed at breakfast and lunch. In terms of an absolute amount of protein per day, increasing protein to 2.3 g/kg body mass reduces the loss of lean body mass (LBM) during reduced calorie

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Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins and Marcus Shortall

is the recommended predictive equation for BMR in athletic populations when fat-free mass or lean body mass is unknown ( Burke & Deakin, 2015 ). A physical activity level of 1.45 was selected based on knowledge of the current population. Lower and upper 95% confidence limits were calculated from the

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Dong-Sung Choi, Hwang-Jae Lee, Yong-II Shin, Ahee Lee, Hee-Goo Kim and Yun-Hee Kim

Med . 1980 ; 51 ( 8 ): 778 – 787 . PubMed ID: 7417144 7417144 12. Lai CC , Tu YK , Wang TG , Huang YT , Chien KL . Effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people: a systematic

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Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa

.1* , ** Note . LIRET = low-intensity resistance exercise training; BMI = body mass index; LBM = lean body mass; BF = body fat. Data are mean ± SEM. * p  < .01 different than before. ** p  < .01 different than control. Autonomic variables at baseline and after 12 weeks for the control and LIRET groups are

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Matt Konopinski, David Rydings, Jordan Milsom, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

) – – – – – – 0 0 ± 0 Note . LBW = lean body mass. Quantification of Daily Energy Intake, Distribution, and Energy Expenditure During the Weekly Microcycle On the basis of a reduced daily loading pattern when compared with normal training, during Weeks 1–6, the player was advised to adhere to a reduced

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Daniel Arvidsson, Elias Johannesson, Lars Bo Andersen, Magnus Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Ola Thorsson and Magnus Dencker

present study, the children with more body fat were neither taller nor had more lean body mass than children with less body fat (data not shown). Therefore, body size may not explain differences in serum BDNF and NGF herein. Instead, the relationships observed (the mediator analysis) may reflect the

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Jacinta M. Saldaris, Grant J. Landers and Brendan S. Lay

body mass 62.9 [7.8] kg, and VO 2peak 63.6 [4.4] mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ) participated in the study. Ethical approval was granted by the Human Research Ethics Office at the University of Western Australia (RA/4/1/8273). Informed written consent was obtained from all participants before their involvement in

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Alon Eliakim, Ita Litmanovitz and Dan Nemet

, beneficial bone effects of exercise were not always accompanied by greater weight gain in preterm infants ( 17 ), implying that this mechanism cannot fully explain the effect of exercise on body weight. Other body composition changes such as increased lean body mass or changes in metabolism/food absorption

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Trent Stellingwerff

: The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) . Mettler , S. , Mitchell , N. , & Tipton , K.D. ( 2010 ). Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 ( 2 ), 326 – 337 . PubMed doi

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Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga and Erick P. de Oliveira

. 2018 ; 33 : 127 – 133 . doi:10.1097/TIN.0000000000000135 10.1097/TIN.0000000000000135 23. Segal KR , Van Loan M , Fitzgerald PI , Hodgdon JA , Van Itallie TB . Lean body mass estimation by bioelectrical impedance analysis: a four-site cross-validation study . Am J Clin Nutr . 1988 ; 47