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Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta and Anna Melin

compromising athletic performance ( Banfi & Dolci, 2006 ). WDEB is an accumulating value that does not reset calculations every day at midnight; thus, it is possible that a traditional 24-hr assessment of EB or EA may mask multiday periods with energy deficits. For instance, light training days may have a

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Sarah P. Shultz, Jinsup Song, Andrew P. Kraszewski, Jocelyn F. Hafer, Smita Rao, Sherry Backus, Rajshree M. Hillstrom and Howard J. Hillstrom

individual plantar regions of a 12-segment mask for each trial 29 ; an average value across all 5 trials was used in the statistical analysis. Foot function variables included peak pressure (N / cm 2 ), maximum force (N), pressure time integral (N · s / cm 2 ), force time integral (N · s), and maximum

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John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore and Gregory Whyte

warm-up (5 min on a motorized treadmill at 10 kph). The 3-km time trials were performed under controlled laboratory conditions of 18°C, 20.9% O 2 , and 40% humidity. During the time trial, participants wore a heart rate (HR) monitor (Polar RS400; Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) and a face mask

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Philippe Richard, Lymperis P. Koziris, Mathieu Charbonneau, Catherine Naulleau, Jonathan Tremblay and François Billaut

%–550% increase in salivary [nitrate] and [nitrite]) were ineffective at enhancing performance during 2 consecutive maximal efforts. Finally, as there was no true control condition (with no nitrate), one may argue that the low nitrate dose provided in our study was sufficient to enhance recovery and thereby mask

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Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Daan J.J. Bregman, Monique A.M. Berger, Annemarie M.H. de Witte and Dirk-Jan (H.) E.J. Veeger

less demanding field positions, possibly masking their potential best performance levels. Therefore, assessment of performance in a match alone provides a narrowed image, possibly disregarding best possible performance levels. By contrast, testing best performance in an isolated field test or lab

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Robin Healy, Ian C. Kenny and Andrew J. Harrison

. Practitioners should also be wary of directly comparing athletes’ RSI or RSR values or using RSI or RSR group normative values, as aggregate scores may mask valuable information about individual strategies. Consequently, values should always be presented with the corresponding CTs and JHs or FTs to give greater

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Damir Zubac, Hrvoje Karnincic and Damir Sekulic

patterns in Olympic-style boxing. Second, the possibility remains that a chronically low body weight could mask predominantly gradual weight-loss patterns found among these elite youth boxing athletes. Indeed, the maintenance of chronically low body weight throughout the competitive season was recently

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David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Helena Moreira, João Abrantes and Aurélio Faria

variation on the data. Using the scalable mask automatically provided by the Footscan Software (Footscan 7.1; RSscan International), the footprint was divided into 10 anatomic pressure areas (Figure  2 ): medial heel (HM), lateral heel (HL), metatarsal areas (M1–M5), midfoot (MF), hallux (T1), and toes (T2

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Pitre C. Bourdon, Sarah M. Woolford and Jonathan D. Buckley

-Exchange Parameters Throughout each rowing test, the athletes breathed through a face mask (series 7500; Hans Rudolph, Shawnee, KS) attached to a 2-way nonrebreathing valve (series 2700; Hans Rudolph) with a precalibrated large flow turbine transducer (Morgan Mark 2 ventilation meter, Rainham, Kent, UK) connected to

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Vera K. Tsenkova, Chioun Lee and Jennifer Morozink Boylan

disease cannot be overstated. We found evidence that combining physical activity across domains masks important variation in the socioeconomic precursors and glucoregulatory sequelae of physical activity. Consistent with the findings of recent systematic reviews, we found that socioeconomic disadvantage