calorimetry system (MetaMax 3B; Cortex Biophysik GmbH, Leipzig, Germany). 17 Ventilation and expired gas concentrations were measured and recorded breath-by-breath to estimate oxygen uptake. The portable system was calibrated before each measurement and verified afterward according to the manufacturer
Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Wendy J. Brown, Tina L. Skinner and G.M.E.E. (Geeske) Peeters
Joseph Myers, John Jolly, Takashi Nagai and Scott Lephart
In vivo scapular kinematics during humeral movements are commonly assessed with electromagnetic tracking devices despite few published data related to reliability and precision of these measurements.
To determine the intrasession reliability and precision of assessing scapular kinematics using an electromagnetic tracking device.
Scapular position and orientation were measured with an electromagnetic tracking device during humeral elevation/depression in several planes. Intrasession reliability and precision were established by comparing 2 trials performed in succession.
A human-movement research laboratory.
15 healthy individuals.
Main Outcome Measures:
Intrasession intraclass correlation coefficients and standard error of measurement of all scapular variables were established.
The mean intrasession reliability for all variables was ICC = .97 ± .03. The mean intrasession precision was .99° ± .36°.
In vivo scapular kinematics can be measured with high reliability and precision during intrasession research designs.
Chris Harwood, Lew Hardy and Austin Swain
This article presents a critical analysis of the conceptualization and measurement of achievement goals in sport. It highlights conceptual and measurement inconsistencies of Nicholls’s (1984) achievement-goal theory in education with respect to its applicability to sport. It proposes that differentiation between ability and effort does not underpin the activation of task and ego goal perspectives in a sport performance context and that the definitions of task and ego involvement in the classroom might not generalize to sport. It offers an alternative conceptual approach incorporating three goal perspectives, as both a theoretical and a practical solution. It addresses goal involvement in sport performance contexts by emphasizing the value of assessing self-referent and normative conceptions of achievement at different time frames. Overall, this critique attempts to advance our understanding of both achievement goals and individual performers in the competitive sport domain.
Tara K. Scanlan, Paul J. Carpenter, Jeffery P. Simons, Greg W. Schmidt and Bruce Keeler
This article presents our progress in developing a set of survey measures to assess constructs of the Sport Commitment Model in the youth-sport domain. Initial item development was accomplished through extensive literature reviews and the expert evaluations of research professionals, teachers, and young athletes. The items were then examined empirically with three separate samples numbering 140, 178, and 1342 athletes, respectively. For the first two samples, items formed reliable scales for each of the model constructs and separated into distinct factors largely as hypothesized. For the third sample, structural-equation modeling was employed and results supported the measurement of four constructs, with the other two constructs held from the measurement model because of item limitations. Overall, results of the three samples indicate reliable measures that can be used in tests of the Sport Commitment Model across samples of youth-sport athletes representing diversity in age, gender, and ethnicity.
Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek and Cheryl A. Cott
about how the body segment interacts with the supporting surface, just as footprints or paw prints were used by primitive man to make deductions about the activities of animals or humans ( Sutherland, 2005 ). Thus, the reliance on COP measurement in postural control research, which provides information
David A. Krause, Beth A. Cloud, Lindsey A. Forster, Jennifer A. Schrank and John H. Hollman
Limited ankle DF (DF) range of motion (ROM) resulting from restricted gastrocnemius and soleus mobility is associated with a variety of lower extremity pathologies. Several techniques are used clinically to measure ankle DF.
To evaluate the reliability and minimal detectable change of DF ROM measurement, determine whether there is a difference in measured DF between techniques, and quantify the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles associated with the techniques.
Controlled laboratory setting.
39 healthy subjects, age 22–33.
Main Outcome Measures:
DF measurements using 5 different techniques including active and passive DF with the knee extended and flexed to 90° and a modified lunge. EMG activity of the soleus and anterior tibialis muscles.
Intrarater reliability values (ICC3,1) ranged from .68 to .89. Interrater reliability (ICC2,1) ranged from .55 to .82. ICCs were the greatest with the modified lunge. The minimal detectable change (MDC95) ranged from 6° to 8° among the different techniques. A significant difference in DF ROM was found between all methods. Measurements taken with active DF were greater than the same measures taken passively. The lunge position resulted in greater DF ROM than both active and passive techniques. EMG activity of the soleus was greater with active DF and the lunge than with passive DF.
The modified lunge, which demonstrated excellent intrarater and interrater reliability, may best represent maximal DF. Active end-range DF was significantly greater than passive end-range DF when measured at either 0° or 90° knee flexion. Greater active DF was not explained by inhibition of the soleus. Finally, using the modified lunge, a difference between 2 measurements over time of 6° or more suggests that a meaningful change has occurred.
Susan L. Whitney, Larry Mattocks, James J. Irrgang, Pamela A. Gentile, David Pezzullo and Abdulazeem Kamkar
The purpose of this two-part study was to determine if lower extremity girth measurements are repeatable. Sixteen males and 14 females participated in the intra- and intertester reliability portion of this study. Girth was assessed at five different lower extremity sites by two physical therapists using a standard tape measure. Thirty measures (15 by each examiner) were collected on the subject's right leg, and a mean of the three measures was used in the analysis. The measurements were repeated 7 days later. It was found that by using a simple standardized procedure, girth measurements in the clinic can be highly repeatable in experienced clinicians. Part 2 of the study involved testing the right and left legs of 22 subjects to determine if girth of the right and left legs was similar. All subjects had their girth assessed at five sites on their right and left legs during one session. It was found that girth measures on the right and left lower extremities are comparable. In an acutely injured lower extremity, it might be assumed that the girth of both lower extremities is similar.
Alex C. Garn
Multidimensional measurement is a common theme in motivation research because many constructs are conceptualized as having an overarching general factor (e.g., situational interest) and specific dimensions (e.g., attention demand, challenge, exploration intention, instant enjoyment, novelty). This review addresses current issues associated with the multidimensional measurement of situational interest in elementary physical education (PE) and illustrates the application and benefits of bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). I perform secondary analysis on a large, previously published data set used to provide validation support for the Situational Interest Scale for Elementary PE. Findings clearly demonstrate the advantages of capturing the multidimensional nature of situational interest using bifactor ESEM. Specifically, a more accurate measurement model of situational interest is reproduced using bifactor ESEM compared with other techniques such as first-order and second-order confirmatory factor analysis. There is empirical support for an overall general factor of situational interest when using the Situational Interest Scale for Elementary PE, however, examining the five dimensions of situational interest as unique factors after accounting for the general factor does not appear warranted.
Beau Kjerulf Greer, Kathleen M. Edsall and Anna E. Greer
The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test–retest reliability measures were significant (p < .01) and high for body fat percentage in both the LC and the CON groups (rs = .993 and .965, respectively). Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups (rs = .996 and .997, respectively). There were significant differences between 1st and 2nd BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7–68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p < .05). However, there were no differences (p > .05) in BOD POD–determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.
Kristie-Lee Taylor, Will G. Hopkins, Dale W. Chapman and John B. Cronin
The purpose of this study was to calculate the coefficients of variation in jump performance for individual participants in multiple trials over time to determine the extent to which there are real differences in the error of measurement between participants. The effect of training phase on measurement error was also investigated. Six subjects participated in a resistance-training intervention for 12 wk with mean power from a countermovement jump measured 6 d/wk. Using a mixed-model meta-analysis, differences between subjects, within-subject changes between training phases, and the mean error values during different phases of training were examined. Small, substantial factor differences of 1.11 were observed between subjects; however, the finding was unclear based on the width of the confidence limits. The mean error was clearly higher during overload training than baseline training, by a factor of ×/÷ 1.3 (confidence limits 1.0–1.6). The random factor representing the interaction between subjects and training phases revealed further substantial differences of ×/÷ 1.2 (1.1–1.3), indicating that on average, the error of measurement in some subjects changes more than in others when overload training is introduced. The results from this study provide the first indication that within-subject variability in performance is substantially different between training phases and, possibly, different between individuals. The implications of these findings for monitoring individuals and estimating sample size are discussed.