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Robert Fields, Andrew T. Kaczynski, Melissa Bopp and Elizabeth Fallon

Background:

Few studies of the built environment and physical activity or other health behaviors have examined minority populations specifically. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the built environment and multiple health behaviors and outcomes among Hispanic adults.

Methods:

Community partners distributed surveys (n = 189) in 3 communities in southwest Kansas. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between neighborhood perceptions and 4 outcomes.

Results:

Meeting physical activity recommendations was associated with the presence of sidewalks and a safe park, and inversely related to higher crime. Residential density and shops nearby were related to active commuting. Sedentary behavior was inversely related to having a bus stop, bike facilities, safe park, interesting things to look at, and seeing people active. Finally, seeing people active was positively associated with being overweight.

Conclusions:

This study suggests that among Hispanics, many built environment variables are related to health behaviors and should be targets for future neighborhood change efforts and research.

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Maureen M. Bylina, Tzyy-Chyn Hu, Terrence J. Conway, Jane Perrin, Jennifer L. Eldridge Houser, Jennifer Hurst and Carolyn C. Cox

This study assessed perceptions about exercise among a convenience sample of low-income, urban, older adult patients at a publicly operated ambulatory primary-care clinic, and results were then compared with the findings of a national study. Although it was expected that the predominantly minority and economically disadvantaged participants in this study would trail significantly behind their White counterparts in their perceptions and behavior regarding exercise, findings demonstrated otherwise. Specifically, when physicians encourage moderate exercise, when patients believe that they can overcome barriers to exercise, and when the environment supports moderate exercise through the availability of community exercise classes, inequities in health behaviors can be reduced. Interventions designed to increase exercise for this population should be developed with an understanding of the many barriers that they will have to overcome, a focus on building confidence, and communicating the many benefits of this behavior.

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Christina Yannetsos, Mario C. Pacheco and Danny G. Thomas

Concussions among athletes in contact sports are a prevalent health concern in the United States. There are few studies that have assessed concussion from the perspective of judo coaches. This is a descriptive study of a survey sent to 1,056 United States judo coaches assessing their attitudes, knowledge, and practices toward concussion. The survey had a response rate of 21%, with 215 total responses. Though most coaches could accurately identify common symptoms of concussion from a case presentation, many also misidentified nonconcussion and red flags (e.g., facial droop) as symptoms of concussion. A minority of coaches reported any formal training in concussion management. USA Judo coaches are receptive to and would benefit from a sport-specific standardized concussion training program.

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Dana D. Brooks, Louis Harrison Jr., Michael Norris and Dawn Norwood

The primary purpose of this article is to engage in a dialogue regarding why faculty, students, and administrators should care about diversity and inclusion in kinesiology. Recent American population growth trends data clearly reveals an increase in ethnic minority populations, particularly Hispanics. American public schools and colleges are experiencing greater ethnic diversity, leading to increased diversity within our classrooms. A review of the literature quickly reveals a lack of clarity in defining the terms diversity and inclusion. Throughout the article we define these terms and at the same time identify barriers (on and off campus) to promoting and ensuring a diverse learning environment. Strong arguments are presented supporting the value of diversity within the academy, especially in kinesiology. The value of diversity in kinesiology is refected in scholarly publications, conference programming, awards recognition activities, and in the recruitment and retention of a diverse faculty and student population.

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Viola C. Altmann, Jacques Van Limbeek, Anne L. Hart and Yves C. Vanlandewijck

A representative sample (N = 302) of the wheelchair rugby population responded to a survey about the classification system based on prioritized items by International Wheelchair Rugby Federation members. Respondents stated, "The classification system is accurate but needs adjustments" (56%), "Any athlete with tetraequivalent impairment should be allowed to compete" (72%), "Athletes with cerebral palsy and other coordination impairments should be classified with a system different than the current one" (75%), and "The maximal value for trunk should be increased from 1.0 to 1.5" (67%). A minority stated, "Wheelchair rugby should only be open to spinal cord injury and other neurological conditions" (36%) and "There should be a 4.0 class" (33%). Results strongly indicated that athletes and stakeholders want adjustments to the classification system in two areas: a focus on evaluation of athletes with impairments other than loss of muscle power caused by spinal cord injury and changes in classification of trunk impairment.

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George Cunningham and E. Nicole Melton

The purpose of this study was to examine parents’ supportive attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) coaches, as well as the sources of that support. The authors drew from the model of dual attitudes and a multilevel framework developed for the study to guide the analyses. Interviews were conducted with 10 parents who lived in the southwest United States. Analysis of the data revealed three different types of support: indifference, qualified support, and unequivocal support. Further analyses provided evidence of multilevel factors affecting the support, including those at the macro-level (religion), the meso-level (parental influences and contact with sexual minorities), and the micro-level (affective and cognitive influences) of analysis. Theoretical implications and contributions of the study are discussed.

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Katherine M. Jamieson, Justine J. Reel and Diane L. Gill

Differential treatment by race has been documented in sport, including the opportunity to occupy specific positions. Few researchers have examined the theoretical fit of stacking in women’s sport contexts. Moreover, the three published studies of stacking in women’s athletics were examinations of positional segregation for white and African American women only. Binary conceptions of race are no longer sufficient to explain the complexity of power relations that are visible through phenomena such as stacking. This study focused on the stacking of four major racial groups in NCAA Division I softball. Based upon the results, we suggest that stacking of racial-ethnic minority women may occur in patterns different from those identified in previous stacking studies.

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Julian A. Reed, Cheryl-Anne Arant, Princess Wells, Katherine Stevens, Sandra Hagen and Holly Harring

Background:

The purpose was to examine 9 adult activity settings in 25 community parks to determine the most and least frequently used by gender, physical-activity (PA) intensity, and ethnicity.

Methods:

All activity settings were identified, measured, and cataloged with GIS measures using the SOPARC direct observation instrument. Each setting was assessed 4 times a day for 7 consecutive days.

Results:

Significantly more male adults were observed at the 25 parks (1598 versus 946; 63% versus 37%). Nine hundred fifty-eight (60%) male adults and 771 (81.1%) female adults used the paved trails. The second most heavily used activity setting for male adults was the softball and baseball fields (n = 239, 14.9%), and female adults chose to use the swimming pools (n = 45, 4.5%). Whites participated in considerably more vigorous PA than minorities.

Conclusions:

Paved trails were only in 5 of the 25 parks but were the most frequently used activity setting.

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Trevor Williams

The subject of this paper is the sport socialization of athletes with disabilities; the object is to contribute to research and praxis through a review of the relevant sociological literature on the subject. The majority of the research, which uses structural-functionalism, is seen as a set of pioneering attempts to generate reliable information. However, the resulting information is too simplistic and theoretically deficient. The minority of the research, which uses interactionism, is seen as complementing the structural-functionalist studies by focusing on different aspects of the socialization experiences of athletes with disabilities. This research is insightful but it is collectively unsystematic. It is concluded that the study of disability sport socialization is in its infancy and is in urgent need of an adequate theoretical foundation. Three theoretical suggestions are offered to provide such a foundation, together with substantive suggestions for focusing on the themes of institutionalized physical activity and sport, social relationships, social configurations, and social control.

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Claudine Sherrill

The underrepresentation of women in the Paralympics movement warrants attention as the world prepares for Atlanta 1996, when Paralympics (conducted after the Summer Olympics) will attract approximately 3,500 athletes with physical disability or visual impairment from 102 countries. Barriers that confront women with disability, the Paralympic movement, and adapted physical activity as a profession and scholarly discipline that stresses advocacy and attitude theories are presented. Two theories (reasoned action and contact) that have been tested in various contexts are woven together as an approach particularly applicable to women in sport and feminists who care about equal access to opportunity for all women. Women with disability are a social minority that is both ignored and oppressed. Sport and feminist theory and action should include disability along with gender, race/ethnicity, class, and age as concerns and issues.