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Margaret Schneider, Andrea Dunn and Daniel Cooper

Many adolescents do not meet public health recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In studies of variables influencing adolescent MVPA, one that has been understudied is the affective response to exercise. We hypothesized that adolescents with a more positive affective response to acute exercise would be more active. Adolescents (N = 124; 46% male) completed two 30-min exercise tasks (above and below the ventilatory threshold [VT]), and wore ActiGraph accelerometers for 6.5 ± 0.7 days. Affective valence was assessed before, during, and after each task. A more positive affective response during exercise below the VT was associated with greater participation in MVPA (p < .05). The results are consistent with the hypothesis that individuals who have a more positive affective response to exercise will engage in more MVPA. To promote greater participation in MVPA among adolescents, programs should be designed to facilitate a positive affective experience during exercise.

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Kimberly Oliver and Nate McCaughtry

Theoretically grounded research on the determinants of Mexican American children’s physical activity and related psychosocial variables is scarce. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict Mexican American children’s self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Children (N = 475, ages 9-12) completed questionnaires assessing the TPB constructs and MVPA. Multiple regression analyses provided moderate support for the ability of the TPB variables to predict MVPA as we accounted for between 8-9% of the variance in MVPA. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 45% of the variance in intention. Descriptive results were encouraging because mean values indicated that most children had positive attitudes, moderately strong intentions, felt in control, and perceived support from significant others (i.e., physical education teachers) for their physical activity engagement.

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Laura N. Desha, Jenny M. Ziviani, Jan M. Nicholson, Graham Martin and Ross E. Darnell

This study employed ordinal logistic regression analyses to investigate the relationship between American adolescents’ participation in physical activity and depressive symptomatology. Data were drawn from the second Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (CDS II), which was conducted over 2002-2003. Fewer than 60% of adolescents were found to accumulate 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) outside of school hours on week or weekend days. Accumulated duration of MVPA was not, however, significantly associated with severity of depressive symptoms for either gender. Males who were not involved in sporting clubs or lessons were more likely than males who were highly involved to experience greater severity of depressive symptoms (OR = 3.24, CI = 1.33, 7.87). Results highlight gender variability in the psychosocial correlates of sporting participation and prompt further investigation of the relevance of current physical activity guidelines for mental health in adolescence.

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Nathalie Aelterman, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Hilde Van Keer, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer and Leen Haerens

Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, M age = 14.36 ± 1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students’ personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory’s emphasis on quality of motivation.

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Zan Gao

Background:

Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is considered a tool to help children promote a healthy active lifestyle. Empirical studies in this field have been largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between students’ mastery experiences, situational motivation, and physical activity levels in DDR.

Methods:

One hundred and ninety-five seventh, eighth, and ninth graders participated in a 2-week DDR unit. Students’ physical activity levels and situational motivation [intrinsic motivation (IM), identified regulation (IR), external regulation, and amotivation) were measured for 3 classes.

Results:

Students were motivated to play DDR, but their moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was low (ie, mean = 4.95%). In addition, students with successful mastery experiences had significantly higher IM, IR, and MVPA.

Conclusions:

Although students were motivated for DDR, they were not physically active in DDR. In addition, successful mastery experience played an important role in students’ motivation and physical activity levels in DDR.

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Kerry E. Costello, Janie L. Astephen Wilson and Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

Purpose: 1) To compare group-level physical activity calculated from a single versus multiple non-consecutive, one-week accelerometer monitoring periods in individuals with medial-compartment knee osteoarthritis and asymptomatic controls; and 2) to examine agreement among these estimates of physical activity at the individual-level. Methods: Accelerometer data from 38 individuals with knee osteoarthritis and 47 asymptomatic individuals was collected during three non-consecutive monitoring periods over one year. General linear models examined the effects of number of sessions averaged (one, two, or three) and group on light and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, step count, and sedentary behavior. Bland Altman analyses examined agreement between one-, two-, and/or three-session averages. Results: There were no sessions by group interactions. There was a main effect of sessions for sedentary behavior that was borderline significant when expressed as percent wear time. Limits of agreement indicated that two-session average versus single-session metrics could differ by ±50 minutes for light physical activity, ±20 minutes for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and ±2100 steps per day. Conclusions: These data suggest that objective physical activity monitoring practices might differ between clinical research, where group data are compared, and clinical decision making, where individual data are compared. Good estimates of group level differences in step count, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were found using a single session of accelerometer data, but a single session of sedentary behavior data should take wear time into account. The large limits of agreement indicate that multiple sessions may be needed to compare these metrics among or within individuals.

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Karin A. Pfeiffer and Michael J. Wierenga

Participation in a sport is widely considered a valuable form of physical activity, especially for children and adolescents. In addition, many think that sport participation translates to future physical activity. However, limited research has examined the ability of youth sport to significantly contribute to meeting daily physical activity guidelines (60 min/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity) and whether the physical activity behaviors of youth sport participants will translate into future, habitual activity in both the short and the long term. In this paper, available research on the role of youth sport in the promotion of physical activity is evaluated. Two major questions are used to frame the discussion: How much physical activity do youth sport participants attain during games and practices, and does sport participation during childhood and adolescence translate into habitual physical activity in adulthood? This is followed by ideas for future research and preliminary recommendations for best practices or policies.

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Renata Moraes Bielemann, Virgílio Viana Ramires, Denise Petrucci Gigante, Pedro Curi Hallal and Bernardo Lessa Horta

Background:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity and triglyceride and HDLc levels in young male adults.

Methods:

We used information about males belonging 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Physical activity in 4 domains (leisure time, transportation, household, and occupation) was assessed by self-report in participants of the cohort at ages of 18 and 23 years. Subjects were active if reached the recommendation of 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. At 23 years of age, blood sample was collected, and triglycerides and HDLc levels estimated. Multivariate linear and Poisson regression were used to adjust the estimates for confounders.

Results:

Males who were inactive at 18 and active at 23 years had 41% lower risk (β = 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.40; 0.89) for borderline-high triglycerides (≥ 150 mg/dL) as compared with those who were inactive at both follow-ups. No association was found between changes of physical activity and HDLc level. In cross-sectional analyses, greater HDLc levels were found in active subjects in 4 domains, whereas there was no difference in HDL levels according physical activity during leisure time.

Conclusion:

Becoming active from adolescence to early adulthood reduced the risk for high triglycerides. Current physical activity was associated with greater HDLc levels.

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Cathleen D. Zick

Background:

Extending Daylight Savings Time (DST) has been identified as a policy intervention that may encourage physical activity. However, there has been little research on the question of if DST encourages adults to be more physically active.

Methods:

Data from residents of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah ages 18–64 who participated in the 2003–2009 American Time Use Survey are used to assess whether DST is associated with increased time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The analysis capitalizes on the natural experiment created because Arizona does not observe DST.

Results:

Both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that shifting 1 hour of daylight from morning to evening does not impact MVPA of Americans living in the southwest.

Conclusions:

While DST may affect the choices people make about the timing and location of their sports/recreational activities, the potential for DST to serve as a broad-based intervention that encourages greater sports/recreation participation is not supported by this analysis. Whether this null effect would persist in other climate situations is an open question.

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Justin B. Moore, Michael W. Beets, Sara F. Morris and Mary Bea Kolbe

Background:

Most youth fail to achieve 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily while engaging in excessive amounts of sedentary behaviors. The objective of this investigation was to identify modifiable factors associated with meeting MVPA recommendations or engaging in greater than 55% of observed time sedentary.

Methods:

Youth (N = 1005, 10.5 yrs, 52% girls) wore accelerometers with daily minutes of MVPA (≥ 2296 counts·min−1) classified as ≥ 60mins/d vs. < 60min/d of MVPA. Sedentary behavior (< 100 counts·min−1) was classified as < 55% or ≥ 55% of total wear-time. Two-level random effects logit survival models for repeated events (days of monitoring) examined the association of psychosocial self-report measures and demographic characteristics to meeting the MVPA recommendation and spending ≥ 55% of time sedentary.

Results:

Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays were associated with a decreased likelihood of meeting MVPA recommendations relative to Mondays. Wednesday thru Sunday were associated with a decreased likelihood of spending ≥ 55% of time sedentary. Being a boy, receiving transportation, and fewer reported barriers to physical activity were associated with meeting MVPA recommendations.

Conclusions:

Relatively few youth are engaging in recommended levels of physical activity. Provision of transportation and reduction of barriers to physical activity are relevant targets for physical activity promotion.