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Nickolai Martonick, Kimber Kober, Abigail Watkins, Amanda DiEnno, Carmen Perez, Ashlie Renfro, Songah Chae and Russell Baker

During movement, dynamic joint stability is achieved through both passive ligament restraints and muscle forces acting on the joint. 1 Therefore, factors of neuromuscular control, such as muscle activation and strength, as well as the resulting kinetic and kinematic measures, should be considered when

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Brian Catania, Travis Ross, Bradley Sandella, Bradley Bley and Andrea DiTrani Lobacz

tool that can more accurately assess trunk and abdominal muscle function, which has been previously cited as an acceptable method of measuring muscle activation. 30 , 33 , 40 , 41 Contested theories of how to test the abdominal and trunk muscles lend to different methods on specific training. 9 , 10

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Mark Holten Mora-Jensen, Pascal Madeleine and Ernst Albin Hansen

bout rate enhancement was reported in healthy individuals ( Hansen, Ebbesen, Dalsgaard, Mora-Jensen, & Rasmussen, 2015 ). Briefly, the phenomenon constitutes a cumulating increase in freely chosen tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation and movement consisting of externally unloaded

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Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

with EMS, which may produce a load insufficient to yield group differences. The analysis did not reveal a significant difference in the CSA of the RA or LAW between the groups, so we could not confirm that ST was superior to EMS for increasing the CSA of the RA and LAW; moreover, muscle activation was

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Angelica E. Lang, Soo Y. Kim, Stephan Milosavljevic and Clark R. Dickerson

positive pain result on at least 1 out of 3 common provocative impingement special tests. 7 This group exhibited shoulder kinematics that are consistent with those who have a rotator cuff impingement diagnosis. 7 , 8 However, a measure of muscle activation is required in order to better understand the

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Kevin McCurdy and John Walker

. 5 – 10 These segments have been shown to differ in moment arm length, mechanical line of action to the intended movement, fiber type, and anatomical structure, 7 , 11 , 12 which is suggested to determine muscle activation patterns. 7 For instance, McAndrew et al 11 determined that 3 regions

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Aaron Derouin and Jim R. Potvin

/(EMG AG  + EMG ANT ) × 100, where EMG AG and EMG ANT refer to agonist and antagonist muscle activations, respectively. Co-contraction was also calculated for the gastrocnemius medialis and vastus lateralis. The statistical analysis for each of the 18 conditions included a calculation of the means and

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James W. Youdas, Hannah E. Baartman, Brian J. Gahlon, Tyler J. Kohnen, Robert J. Sparling and John H. Hollman

from low to high. Of the 16 estimates of torso muscle activation (4 muscles × 4 exercise conditions) in the present study, 11 were classified as moderate recruitment according to DiGiovine classification of muscle recruitment. 15 This finding is consistent with McGill et al’s work, 8 who found

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Christopher Kevin Wong, Lizbeth Conway, Grant Fleming, Caitlin Gopie, Dara Liebeskind and Stephen Xue

attributed to neural adaptations that facilitate muscle activation, 1 while muscle hypertrophy and strength gains occur later, after 6 to 13 weeks. 2 Recent research has shown that, despite muscle hypertrophy, weakness can persist, particularly in the early stages of joint pathology. 3 , 4 Joint and

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Deepika Singla and M. Ejaz Hussain

neuromuscular adaptations in the upper body to MBPT in cricket players of different age groups. Overall, the results of the present study showed that 8 weeks of plyometric training can elicit significant neuromuscular adaptations in cricketers from different age groups by improving their muscle activation