Over the past few years, attention has been drawn to the importance of neighborhood influences on physical activity behavior and the need to consider a multilevel analysis involving not only individual-level variables but also social-and physical-environment variables at the neighborhood level in explaining individual differences in physical activity outcomes. This new paradigm raises a series of issues concerning systems of influence observed at different hierarchical levels (e.g., individuals, neighborhoods) and variables that can be defined at each level. This article reviews research literature and discusses substantive, operational, and statistical issues in studies involving multilevel influences on middle-aged and older adults’ physical activity. To encourage multilevel research, the authors propose a model that focuses attention on multiple levels of influence and the interaction among variables characterizing individuals, among variables characterizing neighborhoods, and across both levels. They conclude that a multilevel perspective is needed to increase understanding of the multiple influences on physical activity.
Fuzhong Li, K. John Fisher, Adrian Bauman, Marcia G. Ory, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Peter Harmer, Mark Bosworth and Minot Cleveland
Kimberly A. Bush, Michael B. Edwards, Gareth J. Jones, Jessica L. Hook and Michael L. Armstrong
Recently, scholars of sport management have called for more research aimed at understanding how sport can be leveraged for social change. This interest has contributed to a burgeoning paradigm of sport management research and practice developed around using sport as a catalyst for broader human and community development. In order for sport practitioners to successfully develop, implement, and sustain these programs, integration of development-based theory and concepts are needed in sport management curricula. Service learning is one pedagogical approach for achieving this objective, and is well suited for promoting social change practices among students. This study assesses how participation in a sport-for-development (SFD) service learning project impacted the social consciousness and critical perspectives of sport management students. Results suggest the experience raised student’s awareness of community issues, developed a more holistic perspective on the role of service, and influenced their future careers.
Cheryl Glazebrook, Digby Elliott, James Lyons and Luc Tremblay
This study investigated inhibition of return in persons with and without Down syndrome (DS) when visual or verbal cues were used to specify a target in a crossmodal paradigm. Individuals with DS and without DS performed manual aiming movements to a target located in right or left hemispace. The target was specified by an endogenous visual or verbal stimulus. Both groups were significantly slower when responding to the same target as the previous trial when the target was cued in a different modality. Although participants with DS initiated and executed their movements more slowly, they demonstrated a similar pattern of inhibition as people without DS, suggesting that inhibitory processes are functioning normally in persons with DS.
Sally Shaw, Richard Wolfe and Wendy Frisby
Sport management education has developed in a manner consistent with conventional management education, focusing on traditional instrumental performance measures and largely ignoring wider social considerations. We endeavour to contribute to the advancement of critical approaches in sport management education. While arguing for the benefits of a sport management education that addresses the complex social issues faced in sport, we provide illustrations of critical teaching in sport management, offering examples from personal pedagogical experience. We conclude with a discussion of pragmatic issues faced in adopting a critical orientation within sport management. Our aim is to provide an approach framed by critical thought that can be used to complement existing teaching paradigms to enhance and bolster the rigour and depth of teaching in sport management.
Marcos Rodrigo Trindade Pinheiro Menuchi and Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi
Locomotion generates a visual movement pattern characterized as optic flow. To explore how the locomotor adjustments are affected by this pattern, an experimental paradigm was developed to eliminate optic flow during obstacle avoidance. The aim was to investigate the contribution of optic flow in obstacle avoidance by using a stroboscopic lamp. Ten young adults walked on an 8m pathway and stepped over obstacles at two heights. Visual sampling was determined by a stroboscopic lamp (static and dynamic visual sampling). Three-dimensional kinematics data showed that the visual information about self-motion provided by the optic flow was crucial for estimating the distance from and the height of the obstacle. Participants presented conservative behavior for obstacle avoidance under experimental visual sampling conditions, which suggests that optic flow favors the coupling of vision to adaptive behavior for obstacle avoidance.
Benoît Lenzen, Catherine Theunissen and Marc Cloes
This exploratory study aimed to investigate elements involved in decision making in team handball live situations and to provide coaches and educators with teaching recommendations. The study was positioned within the framework of the situated action paradigm of which two aspects were of particular interest for this project: (a) the relationship between planning and action, and (b) the perception-action coordination. We used qualitative methods that linked (a) video observation of six female elite players’ actions during two championship matches and (b) self-confrontation interviews. Players’ verbalizations reflected that their decision making included the following: (a) perception (visual, auditory, tactile, proprioceptive), (b) knowledge (concepts, teammates and opponents’ characteristics, experience), (c) expectations (opponents and teammates’ intentions), and (d) contextual elements (score, power play, players on the field, match difficulty). Findings were discussed in terms of teaching implications.
Matthew T. Bowers and B. Christine Green
Youth sport participation often provides the most salient forum for connecting sport with local communities. In this phenomenological examination of preteen youth sport participants, we consider the experiences and attendant meanings derived from participation in both organized and unstructured youth sport settings within a community. Phenomenology offers a paradigm for understanding youth sport participation, not in terms of the dialectical differences between the settings, but in terms of how the experiences in the different settings inform one another in the creation of meanings for participants. The analysis reveals that playing in unstructured settings actually changes the way participants think about their experiences playing organized sports (and vice versa) with both settings providing meaningful experiences capable of connecting participants to the community. Therefore, taxonomically separating the experiences engendered in the organized and unstructured settings creates a false dichotomy that fails to account for the important meanings to emerge from their synthesis.
Angela Lumpkin and Rebecca M. Achen
Despite what many claim, just because there is teaching does not mean there is learning. Clear and convincing evidence supports changing the instructional paradigm to a learner-centered classroom. Flipping a class shifts the delivery, often through technologically presented lectures, to free class time for student participation in a plethora of learning activities, such as think-pair-share and discussions, leading to student perceptions of greater learning and more enjoyment. In an action research approach with one class, 72% of juniors and seniors in an undergraduate sport finance and economics class reported out-of-class lectures often positively impacted their learning, and the remaining 28% responded these lectures did sometimes. End-of-course evaluations and surveys were overwhelmingly positive about class engagement, interaction, and enjoyment.
Thomas M. Lundin, Jon W. Feuerbach and Mark D. Grabiner
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of plantar flexor and dorsiflexor fatigue on postural sway amplitude during unilateral, or one-legged, stance. It was hypothesized that plantar flexor and dorsiflexor fatigue would increase unilateral postural sway amplitude. Eight uninjured male subjects participated in pre- and postfatigue unilateral stability tests. Selected parameters describing medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway were measured on a Chattecx Balance System before and after an isokinetic fatigue protocol. The fatigue protocol resulted in a significant increase in ML postural sway amplitude (p < 0.05) and an increase in AP sway amplitude (p = 0.065). Previously, links have been established between increased postural sway amplitude and ankle joint injury. Thus, fatigue of the plantar flexors and dorsiflexors, which increased postural sway amplitude, may render the ankle joint susceptible to injury. Induced ankle muscle fatigue may represent a valid paradigm to study the causes of traumatic ankle joint injury.
Allen L. Sack, Parbudyal Singh and Robert Thiel
Occupational segregation by race and gender, though less common now than in the past, continues to be the norm rather than the exception in the sport industry. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, occupational segregation on the baseball playing field, often referred to as stacking, was discussed in light of human capital and social closure theories. Second, an attempt was made to replicate and extend a multivariate analysis of stacking by Margolis and Piliavin (1999) that challenges the dominant social science paradigm for explaining stacking. The present study uses more recent data than the Margolis and Piliavin study, as well as multinomial logistic regression analysis. The results reveal that stacking persists in Major League Baseball. They also reveal that the effect of race/ethnicity on assignments to playing positions is reduced when one controls for skills and physical characteristics such as speed and power hitting. The implications of this finding for sport management are examined.