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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto and Andressa da Silva

amputation of right leg; OD = other individual-specific impairments; Msc = multiple sclerosis; WB = wheelchair basketball; WT = wheelchair tennis; WR = wheelchair rugby; HAND = handcycling; [Lac] = lactate concentration; RPE = rating of perceived exertion; VO 2peak  = peak oxygen uptake; HR–VO 2 =heart rate

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Connor A. Burton and Christine A. Lauber

OR endurance cyclists • Intervention: cold water immersion, OR ice immersion, OR cold bath, OR ice bath, AND pre-cooling • Comparison: control • Outcomes: performance, AND core temperature, AND heart rate, AND rate of perceived exertion, AND blood lactate concentration Figure 1 —Summary of search

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Mostafa Yaghoubi, Philip W. Fink, Wyatt H. Page and Sarah P. Shultz

ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) between exercises, to better inform physiological efficacy of exercise prescription. Due to both deconditioning and the higher mechanical demand associated with moving excess mass in OW children, it was hypothesized that muscle activation patterns will be different

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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young and Brendan J. O’Brien

specific warm-up preceded the test, involving 20-m shuttle runs of progressive intensity, side-to-side shuffles, 15-m submaximal sprints, and dynamic stretches. Participants delivered 10 warm-up balls of progressive intensity (60–95% perceived exertion) to a variety of targets. A new 156-g 2-piece red

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Mário A.M. Simim, Gustavo R. da Mota, Moacir Marocolo, Bruno V.C. da Silva, Marco Túlio de Mello and Paul S. Bradley

was quantified immediately after testing using the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) with values ranging from 0 to 10. Figure 1 —Experimental design. GPS = global positioning system. All matches consisted of two 25-min halves with a 10-min rest interval between the halves and were played on a natural

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Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey

 months and consequently was familiar with the testing procedures and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale ( Borg, 1998 ). Hence, no specific familiarization was deemed necessary as it would have impacted on the athlete’s training program. The participant was, however, familiarized with the Felt

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Teun van Erp, Dajo Sanders and Jos J. de Koning

collection, the men’s team was active on Pro Continental level and the last 3 years at World Tour level. From as much as possible training days HR, PO and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) data were collected. An individual data set could vary in length from 1 to 4 years depending on their respective

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Antje Hill, Linda Schücker, Norbert Hagemann and Bernd Strauß

). Although all outcome variables can be regarded as important, some of them (e.g., speed or perceived exertion) can be easily influenced by participants’ motivation to perform well on the task making it necessary to control for other influences (e.g., motivation). Therefore, running economy is a favorable

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Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito

expert was 1.3%. Capillary blood samples were collected from the fingertip at baseline, prior to the graded maximal-exercise test, immediately after the test, and at 3 and 5 minutes of recovery. Furthermore, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured after warm-up and at maximal effort using the

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John L. Ivy, Peter T. Res, Robert C. Sprague and Matthew O. Widzer

Increasing the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during prolonged variable intensity exercise by supplementing with carbohydrate has been found to spare muscle glycogen and increase aerobic endurance. Furthermore, the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement will enhance the insulin response of a carbohydrate supplement. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of a carbohydrate and a carbohydrate-protein supplement on aerobic endurance performance. Nine trained cyclists exercised on 3 separate occasions at intensities that varied between 45% and 75% VO2max for 3 h and then at 85% VO2max until fatigued. Supplements (200 ml) were provided every 20 min and consisted of placebo, a 7.75% carbohydrate solution, and a 7.75% carbohydrate / 1.94% protein solution. Treatments were administered using a double-blind randomized design. Carbohydrate supplementation significantly increased time to exhaustion (carbohydrate 19.7 ± 4.6 min vs. placebo 12.7 ± 3.1 min), while the addition of protein enhanced the effect of the carbohydrate supplement (carbohydrate-protein 26.9 ± 4.5 min, p < .05). Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were elevated above placebo during carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein supplementation, but no differences were found between the carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein treatments. In summary, we found that the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement enhanced aerobic endurance performance above that which occurred with carbohydrate alone, but the reason for this improvement in performance was not evident.