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Thelma S. Horn

value of an incremental or growth mind-set in terms of its correlation with many positive outcomes (e.g., motivational levels, persistence, interest, adaptive responses to failure and setbacks) across a range of achievement contexts (e.g., academics, sport, health) and at most developmental time points

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Brock McMullen, Hester L. Henderson, Donna Harp Ziegenfuss and Maria Newton

-efficacy set more challenging goals ( Boyce & Bingham, 1997 ), put forth greater effort ( George, 1994 ), show higher levels of persistence ( Gao & Newton, 2009 ; Hutchinson, Sherman, Martinovic, & Tenenbaum, 2008 ), and display greater levels of enjoyment in their sport or activity ( Hu et al., 2007 ). Under

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Amy Whitehead, Kanayo Umeh, Barbara Walsh, Eleanor Whittaker and Colum Cronin

development of more self-determined regulations, which underpin task persistence and psychological well-being ( Ryan & Deci, 2000 ; Sheldon, Elliot, Kim, & Kasser, 2001 ). Autonomy is characterized by feelings of choice and being able to choose one’s own behavior. Relatedness refers to feeling connectedness

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Scott W. Ducharme and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

 = .5 represents an uncorrelated signal, equivalent to white noise (Figure  6 ; left column). A scaling exponent of .5 < α ≤ 1.0 indicates long-range persistence, whereby small or large fluctuations are likely to be followed by small or large fluctuations, respectively. In contrast, a scaling exponent

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Tim Fletcher, Ken Lodewyk, Katie Glover and Sandra Albione

the task. Empirical support for expectancy-value theory signals that such expectancies and task values are linked to achievement, particularly through their influence on related processes such as cognitive processing, choice, and persistence on learning tasks ( Wigfield & Eccles, 2000 ). Expectancies

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Robert Weinberg, Deanna Morrison, Megan Loftin, Thelma Horn, Elizabeth Goodwin, Emily Wright and Carly Block

performance. Locke and Latham ( 2006 ) have hypothesized that goals are related to task performance primarily through increased levels of confidence (efficacy expectations) and motivation that translate into increased effort and persistence. However, due to individual differences and environmental influences

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Anna Stodter and Christopher J. Cushion

persistence of the signature pedagogy ( Shulman, 2005 ), for example through the following activity: Think about what helped you learn best and list specific things that helped you learn. Then who helped you best, not just how, then think of strengths/qualities/what they did that inspired you. The most

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Rachel E. Brinkman-Majewski and Windee M. Weiss

the interaction effect of perceptions of the motivational climate and athletes’ goal orientation on intrinsic motivation and effort and persistence in class. Findings revealed that higher task goal orientation combined with higher perceptions of a mastery climate were the strongest predictors of

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George B. Cunningham, Na Young Ahn, Arden J. Anderson and Marlene A. Dixon

opportunities and the ability to advance. When such expectations are low, people will likely follow other options. In an examination of student persistence, for example, Kahn and Nauta ( 2001 ) found that college students were more likely to continue in their degree path when they believed doing so would allow

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Hedda Berntsen and Elsa Kristiansen

to explain sport persistence and dropout in adolescent athletes . Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13 ( 2 ), 677 – 684 . doi:10.1017/S1138741600002341 10.1017/S1138741600002341 Carpentier , J. , & Mageau , G.A. ( 2013 ). When change-oriented feedback enhances motivation, well-being and