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Robert Weinberg, Deanna Morrison, Megan Loftin, Thelma Horn, Elizabeth Goodwin, Emily Wright and Carly Block

performance. Locke and Latham ( 2006 ) have hypothesized that goals are related to task performance primarily through increased levels of confidence (efficacy expectations) and motivation that translate into increased effort and persistence. However, due to individual differences and environmental influences

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Rachel E. Brinkman-Majewski and Windee M. Weiss

the interaction effect of perceptions of the motivational climate and athletes’ goal orientation on intrinsic motivation and effort and persistence in class. Findings revealed that higher task goal orientation combined with higher perceptions of a mastery climate were the strongest predictors of

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Brock McMullen, Hester L. Henderson, Donna Harp Ziegenfuss and Maria Newton

-efficacy set more challenging goals ( Boyce & Bingham, 1997 ), put forth greater effort ( George, 1994 ), show higher levels of persistence ( Gao & Newton, 2009 ; Hutchinson, Sherman, Martinovic, & Tenenbaum, 2008 ), and display greater levels of enjoyment in their sport or activity ( Hu et al., 2007 ). Under

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Hedda Berntsen and Elsa Kristiansen

to explain sport persistence and dropout in adolescent athletes . Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13 ( 2 ), 677 – 684 . doi:10.1017/S1138741600002341 10.1017/S1138741600002341 Carpentier , J. , & Mageau , G.A. ( 2013 ). When change-oriented feedback enhances motivation, well-being and

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Jian Wang, Bo Shen, Xiaobin Luo, Qingshan Hu and Alex C. Garn

 × 2 achievement goal framework in secondary physical education and revealed that mastery approach, mastery avoidance, and ability-approach goals were positive predictors of effort and persistence, while ability avoidance goals were negative predictors of the same outcomes. Wang, Biddle, and Elliot

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George B. Cunningham, Na Young Ahn, Arden J. Anderson and Marlene A. Dixon

opportunities and the ability to advance. When such expectations are low, people will likely follow other options. In an examination of student persistence, for example, Kahn and Nauta ( 2001 ) found that college students were more likely to continue in their degree path when they believed doing so would allow

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Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

takes each day, which may be related to factors outside individual control, such as a person’s schedule or work demands. This may be especially true when self-regulation is low, due to deficits in planning, persistence, and the ability to suppress negative impulses. Current Study This study of active

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Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir

persistence ( Boiché, Chalabaev, et al., 2014 ). The current study advances our knowledge by more specifically examining the relationship of pro-feminine beliefs with sport commitment and sport enjoyment ( Brown et al., 2014 ; Crane & Temple, 2015 ). Pro-feminine beliefs may contribute to continued

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Anna Stodter and Christopher J. Cushion

persistence of the signature pedagogy ( Shulman, 2005 ), for example through the following activity: Think about what helped you learn best and list specific things that helped you learn. Then who helped you best, not just how, then think of strengths/qualities/what they did that inspired you. The most

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Scott W. Ducharme and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

 = .5 represents an uncorrelated signal, equivalent to white noise (Figure  6 ; left column). A scaling exponent of .5 < α ≤ 1.0 indicates long-range persistence, whereby small or large fluctuations are likely to be followed by small or large fluctuations, respectively. In contrast, a scaling exponent