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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

encouraging and information based, as these types have been linked to higher self-esteem, positive affect, persistence, and self-determined motivation. Failing to provide feedback or punishment-oriented feedback decreases these outcomes and may also lead to higher anxiety. Second, feedback should be autonomy

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Minjung Kim, Brent D. Oja, Han Soo Kim and Ji-Hyoung Chin

students such as persistence and future engagement in postgraduate work ( Kuh, Cruce, Shoup, Kinzie, & Gonyea, 2008 ). More specifically, Oja and Clopton ( 2017 ) postulated that for minority student-athletes, bonding with teammates while engaging in campus activities could lead to improved adjustment to

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Leehu Zysberg and Rotem Hemmel

may be an explanatory factor accounting for persistence and effort required to maintain an active lifestyle. Another possible interpretation is that as evidence shows that EI is associated with better stress management, PA may be a tool for managing stress among individuals with higher EI. 23 , 24

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Shannon Gadbois, Anne Bowker, Linda Rose-Krasnor and Leanne Findlay

coaches) that emphasize building relationships, as well as building skill and putting in effort, are associated with greater enjoyment and persistence in sport (e.g.,  Atkins, Johnson, Force, & Petrie, 2015 ; Stuntz & Weiss, 2009 ). It seems reasonable that these kinds of benefits can arise associated

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Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart

goals” (p. 220). The fundamental competencies that are relevant to sportspersonship are motivation oriented on the task, and self-structure oriented on morality. Athletes practicing good sportspersonship exhibit such virtues as fairness, self-control, courage, and persistence. According to Shields and

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Matthew Jenkins, Elaine A. Hargreaves and Ken Hodge

-determination theory is a metatheory of human motivation that explains how the reasons underlying a given behavior have consequences for behavioral persistence. According to Deci and Ryan ( 2002 , 2008 ), motivation can be conceptualized as existing along a self-determination continuum that broadly specifies two

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Brock McMullen, Hester L. Henderson, Donna Harp Ziegenfuss and Maria Newton

-efficacy set more challenging goals ( Boyce & Bingham, 1997 ), put forth greater effort ( George, 1994 ), show higher levels of persistence ( Gao & Newton, 2009 ; Hutchinson, Sherman, Martinovic, & Tenenbaum, 2008 ), and display greater levels of enjoyment in their sport or activity ( Hu et al., 2007 ). Under

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Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

takes each day, which may be related to factors outside individual control, such as a person’s schedule or work demands. This may be especially true when self-regulation is low, due to deficits in planning, persistence, and the ability to suppress negative impulses. Current Study This study of active

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George B. Cunningham, Na Young Ahn, Arden J. Anderson and Marlene A. Dixon

opportunities and the ability to advance. When such expectations are low, people will likely follow other options. In an examination of student persistence, for example, Kahn and Nauta ( 2001 ) found that college students were more likely to continue in their degree path when they believed doing so would allow

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Rachel E. Brinkman-Majewski and Windee M. Weiss

the interaction effect of perceptions of the motivational climate and athletes’ goal orientation on intrinsic motivation and effort and persistence in class. Findings revealed that higher task goal orientation combined with higher perceptions of a mastery climate were the strongest predictors of