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Karen Martin, Alexandra Bremner, Jo Salmon, Michael Rosenberg and Billie Giles-Corti


The objective of this study was to develop a multidomain model to identify key characteristics of the primary school environment associated with children’s physical activity (PA) during class-time.


Accelerometers were used to calculate time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during class-time (CMVPA) of 408 sixth-grade children (mean ± SD age 11.1 ± 0.43 years) attending 27 metropolitan primary schools in Perth Western Australia. Child and staff self-report instruments and a school physical environment scan administered by the research team were used to collect data about children and the class and school environments. Hierarchical modeling identified key variables associated with CMVPA.


The final multilevel model explained 49% of CMVPA. A physically active physical education (PE) coordinator, fitness sessions incorporated into PE sessions and either a trained PE specialist, classroom teacher or nobody coordinating PE in the school, rather than the deputy principal, were associated with higher CMVPA. The amount of grassed area per student and sporting apparatus on grass were also associated with higher CMVPA.


These results highlight the relevance of the school’s sociocultural, policy and physical environments in supporting class-based PA. Interventions testing optimization of the school physical, sociocultural and policy environments to support physical activity are warranted.

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John Reynolds

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Michael G. Dolan

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Jennifer McConnell-Nzunga, Katie A. Weatherson, Louise Masse, Valerie Carson, Guy Faulkner, Erica Lau, Heather McKay, Viviene Temple, Luke Wolfenden and Patti J. Naylor

PA behaviours. 3 Child care settings can provide opportunities for PA through their physical environments, policies, and practices 4 and their broad reach. In 2011, 62% of Canadian parents reported using some type of child care for their 3-year-old children, 64% for 4-year-old children, and 52% for

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Rodney E. Hero

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Synthia S. Slowikowski

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Ron Courson, Harris Patel, Lenny Navitskis, Fred Reifsteck and Kelly Ward