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Kristen Day

activity, compared with other regions. Given the comparative poverty of many African countries (see Online Supplementary Table 1 ), 17 , 25 active living research may not be a priority. Existing studies primarily emphasized the role of urban versus rural environments and also focused on the association

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Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Timothy Kellison

introduction (pp.  77 – 105 ). London, UK : Sage Publications . Collins , T.W. , & Grineski , S.E. ( 2008 ). Unequal impacts of downtown redevelopment: The case of stadium building in Phoenix, AZ . Journal of Poverty, 11 ( 1 ), 23 – 54 . doi: 10.1300/J134v11n01_02 Cordery , C.J. , Sim , D

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Lindley McDavid, Meghan H. McDonough, Bonnie T. Blankenship and James M. LeBreton

-of-school free time is that youth in poverty are at an increased risk to engage in problem behaviors that have long-term negative consequences such as crime, substance use, and violence ( Goldner, Peters, Richards, & Pearce, 2011 ; Richards et al., 2004 ; Svensson & Oberwittler, 2010 ). In contrast, time spent

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Danielle Peers

—however, normalization is not what determines the activity’s, or participant’s, value. Importantly, increased life chances can also mean an ethical commitment to decreasing the social structures that diminish some people’s chance of survival and opportunities for flourishing: structures like poverty, abuse, exclusion

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Venurs H.Y. Loh, Jerome N. Rachele, Wendy J. Brown, Fatima Ghani and Gavin Turrell

. Health Place . 2009 ; 15 ( 4 ): 1058 – 1063 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.05.001 19473867 10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.05.001 17. Yen IH , Kaplan GA . Poverty area residence and changes in physical activity level: evidence from the Alameda County Study . Am J Public Health . 1998 ; 88

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Angela Devereux-Fitzgerald, Rachael Powell and David P. French

older adults. Actual ward deprivation figures ranged from 38.5% to 54.8% of older adults living in poverty, compared with the English national average of 18.1% ( DCLG, 2011 ). Deprivation figures were based on factors including income, crime risk, access to local amenities, and living environment ( DCLG

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Laureen H. Smith, Devin Laurent, Erica Baumker and Rick L. Petosa

distrust of outsiders and of the formal health care system. 19 , 20 Furthermore, rural Appalachia has environmental, economic, and social characteristics that influence health problems. 8 Reduced educational opportunities and high unemployment have led to economic instability and persistent poverty

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Haichun Sun and Tan Zhang

, and these connections are especially meaningful for students in urban schools or high-poverty schools, where students may face many challenges in their community ( Ennis, 2000 ). When students fail to connect themselves to the learning community or perceive the relevance and values of their

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Thomas P. Oates

-class inhabitants” ( Lee, 2009 ). Among these inhabitants were several young men who would draw on the neighborhood’s reputation in their later careers in hip hop. The lyrics of the Notorious B.I.G. and Busta Rhymes made frequent reference to the violence and poverty of Bed-Stuy and, in doing so, became highly

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Aquasia A. Shaw, Merry Moiseichik, Heather Blunt-Vinti and Sarah Stokowski

stereotypes of African-American athletes as poverty-stricken individuals being exploited on the premise of their athletic abilities by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and its membered PWI through commercialism. ( Smith, Obeng, & Sales, 2015 , p. 407) For example, Cooper and Hawkins ( 2014