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Robert A. Oppliger, Suzanne A. Nelson Steen and James R. Scott

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the weight management (WM) behaviors of collegiate wrestlers after the implementation of the NCAA’s new weight control rules. Methods: In the fall of 1999, a survey was distributed to 47 college wrestling teams stratified by collegiate division (i.e., I, II, III) and competitive quality. Forty-three teams returned surveys for a total of 741 responses. Comparisons were made using the collegiate division, weight class, and the wrestler’s competitive winning percentage. Results: The most weight lost during the season was 5.3 kg ± 2.8 kg (mean ± SD) or 6.9% ± 4.7% of the wrestler’s weight; weekly weight lost averaged 2.9 kg ± 1.3 kg or 4.3% ± 2.3% of the wrestler’s weight; post-season, the average wrestler regained 5.5 kg ± 3.6 kg or 8.6% ± 5.4% of their weight. Coaches and fellow wrestlers were the primary influence on weight loss methods; however, 40.2% indicated that the new NCAA rules deterred extreme weight loss behaviors. The primary methods of weight loss reported were gradual dieting (79.4%) and increased exercise (75.2%). However, 54.8% fasted, 27.6% used saunas, and 26.7% used rubber/ plastic suits at least once a month. Cathartics and vomiting were seldom used to lose weight, and only 5 met three or more of the criteria for bulimia nervosa. WM behaviors were more extreme among freshmen, lighter weight classes, and Division II wrestlers. Compared to previous surveys of high school wrestlers, this cohort of wrestlers reported more extreme WM behaviors. However, compared to college wrestlers in the 1980s, weight loss behaviors were less extreme. Conclusions: The WM practices of college wrestlers appeared to have improved compared to wrestlers sampled previously. Forty percent of the wrestlers were influenced by the new NCAA rules and curbed their weight loss practices. Education is still needed, as some wrestlers are still engaging in dangerous WM methods.

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April Karlinsky and Nicola J. Hodges

Giving learners a choice over how to schedule practice benefits motor learning. Here we studied peer scheduling to determine whether this benefit is related to the adaptive nature of practice or decisions about how to switch between skills. Forty-eight participants were paired and assigned to self- or peer-scheduled groups. Within each pair, one person (Actor) physically practiced 3 keystroke sequences, each with different timing goals. Self-scheduled Actors chose the sequence before each practice trial while their Partner watched. Peer-scheduled Actors had their practice directed by their Partner. Both peer schedulers and self-schedulers showed performance-dependent practice, making decisions to switch based on timing error. However, peer schedulers generally chose to switch more than self-schedulers although this was not related to retention for either group. Importantly, self-scheduled Actors did not differ in retention from peer-scheduled Actors, but the Actors generally performed with lower error in retention than that of their partners. Peer-scheduled practice was rated as more motivating and enjoyable than self-scheduled practice. In view of the lack of difference in retention and the positive ratings of peer-scheduled practice, we conclude that it is the adaptive nature of practice that is important for learning and that peer-directed practice is an effective alternative practice method to self-directed practice.

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Ben C. Sporer, Anita Cote and Gordon Sleivert


The purpose of this project was to observe current warm-up practices in snowboard athletes and evaluate their physiological impact before competition.


An observational design was used to monitor 4 athletes (2 female) at an Open National Snowboard Cross Championships. Activity patterns, core temperature, heart rate (HR), and time between warm-up and competition were measured. Athlete ratings of thermal comfort (TC) and thermal sensation (TS) were recorded before competition.


Significant barriers and challenges to an optimal warm-up included delays, environment, and logistics. Time gaps between structured warm-up and competition start time were in excess of 1 h (median = 68.8 min). Median average HR for 10 min (HR10) did not exceed 120 beats/min in the hour preceding competition, suggesting a suboptimal warmup intensity. Athletes rated their TC between comfortable and slightly uncomfortable and TS as neutral to slightly warm before the start of qualifications and finals.


The observations of this project suggest significant gaps in current warm-up strategies used in snowboarding. These include inadequate general aerobic warm-up (based on intensity and duration), excessive time between warm-up and competition, and lack of a consistent and structured warm-up protocol. Future work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of different warm-up strategies on muscle temperature and performance while determining the optimal length of time between warm-up and competition.

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Bradley N. Hedrick, Martin I. Morse and Stephen F. Figoni

This project assessed training behaviors and attributes of elite wheelchair racers. Training information was received from 36 participants in the 1985 National 10K Wheelchair Roadracing Championship. Data were obtained about age, weight, nature and level of disability, racing experience, sources of training information, level of cigarette and alcohol use, and dietary habits. Weekly training behaviors across yearly quarters were assessed with regard to the number of weekly pushing workouts, length of pushing workouts, number of miles pushed per week, percentage of training time allocated to interval training and/or speedwork, number of weekly weight-training sessions, and number of other augmentative physical activities pursued twice or more per week. Perceived exertion during interval and noninterval, steady-state training tasks was also measured. Results revealed that training behaviors of elite wheelchair racers are very heterogeneous. Participation in and age of introduction to elite wheelchair racing were found to be predominantly adult phenomena. The health practices of the athletes regarding cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and weight control were generally found to be good. However, inadequate caloric control measures by the quadriplegics and the ingestion of protein supplements by male racers indicate that some dietary counseling may be needed. The results provide a starting point for a data base pertaining to training behaviors in wheelchair racing.

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Gary Slater, Benedict Tan and Kong Chuan Teh

The supplementation practices of elite athletes in Singapore were studied using an anonymous questionnaire. Information was sought on not only the type of supplements used but also dosage, rationale for use, and other factors that might influence supplement use including selected demographic parameters and sources of information relating to supplements. Data was collected from 160 athletes across a spectrum of 30 sports. Use of supplements was widespread, with 77% of respondents acknowledging use of at least 1 product. Respondents ingested a total of 59 different supplements, with each athlete using on average 3.6 ± 0.3 different products. Sports drinks, caffeine, vitamin C, multivitamin/mineral supplements, and essence of chicken were some of the most commonly ingested products, confirming that while vitamin/mineral supplements are popular, sports supplements and traditional/herbal preparations were also well accepted. Respondents preferred to source information pertaining to supplements from “significant others” and other readily accessible sources. A small number of respondents acknowledged the use of International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned or restricted substances, highlighting the need for athletes to consult sports medicine professionals with specialist knowledge of dietary supplements in advance of initiating any supplementation regime.

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Sara J. Golec and Alison R. Valier

Clinical Scenario Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are one form of evidence used to inform clinical practice and have been developed to aid clinicians in providing optimal care to their patients. 1 Clinical practice guidelines are typically produced to address common illnesses, conditions, or

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Ashley A. Hansen, Joanne E. Perry, John W. Lace, Zachary C. Merz, Taylor L. Montgomery and Michael J. Ross

Applied sport psychology practice requires the incorporation of many areas of specialty, including clinical psychology, kinesiology, and sport psychology. In order to capture the complexities that exist in this practice, the model of clinical sport psychology (CSP) has been established ( Gardner

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Blake D. McLean, Donald Strack, Jennifer Russell and Aaron J. Coutts

available player tracking information in NBA games, 7 this has been done without any information relating to measurement precision and does not incorporate physical demands placed on the athletes outside of games (eg, practice). Perhaps the greatest lag in gaining these insights is the slower emergence of

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Linda Corbally, Mick Wilkinson and Melissa A. Fothergill

psychological technique that is gaining support and has been successfully implemented in sport is the practice of mindfulness ( Gardner & Moore, 2017 ). Mindfulness is defined as a structured mind set to being aware of the present-moment experience in an accepting, non-judging, and non-avoiding way ( Kabat

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Philomena B. Ikulayo and Johnson A. Semidara

This article discusses unorthodox sport psychology practices typical with Nigerian athletes, which differ from Western mainstream practice models. These practices are specific Nigerian cultural approaches to sport psychology and are based on two broad types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The intrinsic aspects include prayers, chanting of songs, verbalization of incantations, psyching verses, and juju and spirits in motivational processes. The extrinsic strategies include praise singing, audience verbalization, drumming effects, persistent silent audiences’ effects, and presence of important persons as spectators or part of the audience. The article concludes with the hope that some of these unique practice strategies will be further researched and will be viable for adoption by athletes in other nations of the world who believe in their power so that multicultural practices can help advance the field of sport psychology.