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Denise Rodrigues Bueno, Maria de Fátima Nunes Marucci, Clara Suemi da Costa Rosa, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte and Maria Lucia Lebão

of causality. Finally, the present study did not estimate indirect costs, which include lost productivity from premature death and disability associated with illness or uncontrolled HPB and DM. Future studies that consider these additional costs may improve estimates of the economic impact of

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen Wallman and Georgina Kent

neural drive, 4 , 5 and impaired energy efficiency. 6 , 7 A critical core temperature of 39.5°C to 40°C has also been reported to result in premature fatigue. 1 , 4 Furthermore, although excessive sweating during exercise in the heat is effective at cooling the body, it results in an earlier onset of

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Alexei Wong, Arturo Figueroa, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Oksana Chernykh and Song-Young Park

guidelines of the task force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology ( 1996 ). All R–R intervals were inspected for artifacts and premature beats. HRV was quantified from 5-min segments free from artifacts. The autoregressive model was used to

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Ronit Aviram, Netta Harries, Anat Shkedy Rabani, Akram Amro, Ibtisam Nammourah, Muhammed Al-Jarrah, Yoav Raanan, Yeshayahu Hutzler and Simona Bar-Haim

-008-0054-8 22905272 10.1007/s12170-008-0054-8 10. Inoue M , Iso H , Yamamoto S , et al . Daily total physical activity level and premature death in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study) . Ann Epidemiol . 2008 ; 18 ( 7 ): 522 – 30 . PubMed ID

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Pedro J. Teixeira, Adilson Marques, Carla Lopes, Luís B. Sardinha and Jorge A. Mota

associated with low stress and high mental resources, 9 and enhances cognitive function. 10 Even amounts of physical activity below the recommendations have health benefits and reduce premature mortality. 11 Despite evidence of the health benefits of physical activity, previous studies have indicated that

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Mike Pryzbek, Julie Richardson, Lehana Thabane and Ada Tang

), cardiovascular disease ( Chomistek et al., 2013 ; de Rezende, Lopes, Rey-Lopez, Matsudo, & Luiz, 2014 ; Lee et al., 2012 ; Wilmot et al., 2012 ), premature mortality ( Lee et al., 2012 ; Warburton, Katzmarzyk, Rhodes, & Shephard, 2007 ), and cardiovascular mortality ( Wilmot et al., 2012 ). However, research

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Elizabeth F. Teel, Stephen W. Marshall, L. Gregory Appelbaum, Claudio L. Battaglini, Kevin A. Carneiro, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Johna K. Register-Mihalik and Jason P. Mihalik

than 20 years of experience working in exercise prescription in clinical populations. The lead author was also responsible for generating the allocation sequence, enrolling participants, and assigning participants to intervention arms. Because this study involved healthy participants, no premature

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Jill R. Reed, Paul Estabrooks, Bunny Pozehl, Kate Heelan and Christopher Wichman

The American Heart Association and the World Health Organization recognize physical inactivity as the fourth leading risk factor of global morbidity and premature mortality. 1 , 2 Greater levels of physical activity (PA) and fitness are directly related to improvements in health status. 3

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Edward J. Bradley, Bob Hogg and David T. Archer

: 550 – 554 . PubMed ID: 22378840 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090360 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090360 10. Dennison CR , Macri EM , Cripton PA . Mechanisms of cervical spine injury in rugby union: is it premature to abandon hyperflexion as the main mechanism underpinning injury? Br J Sports Med

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Rachel B. Parks, Hector F. Angus, Douglas S. King and Rick L. Sharp

( Foster et al., 1979 ; Keller & Schwarzkopf, 1984 ). Both of those studies concluded that impaired fatty acid mobilization and increased glycogen utilization caused the premature fatigue, but muscle biopsies were not collected in either trial. Due to the brevity of the cycling bout in the present study