This study addressed teachers’ fidelity to one Physical Education curricular model. The theoretical framework guiding this study included professional development and fidelity to curricular models. In this study, teachers’ fidelity to the Dynamic Physical Education (DPE) curricular model was measured for high and nonsupport district groups. Participants were 20 Physical Education teachers. Ten teachers worked in a highly supportive district, while 10 teachers worked in nonsupportive districts. Data were collected using field notes, a DPE observation instrument, and informal interviews. Two themes emerged from the data: (a) district support led to higher teacher fidelity levels to the DPE curriculum, and (b) the teachers from the nonsupport district implemented management procedures differently than the high support district teachers.
Tiffany Kloeppel, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Michalis Stylianou and Hans van der Mars
Louis Harrison, Russell L. Carson and Joe Burden
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the common assumption that teachers of color (TOC) are more culturally competent than White teachers by assessing physical education teachers’ cultural competency. A secondary purpose was to ascertain the possible differences in cultural competence levels of White teachers in diverse school settings versus those in more racially homogenous schools. One hundred and ninety physical education teachers from two states in the southeastern U.S. completed a demographic questionnaire and the Multicultural Teaching Competency Scale (MTCS) (Spanierman et al., 2006). The MTCS consists of two subscales; multicultural teaching knowledge (MTK), and multicultural teaching skills (MTS). MANCOVA analyses indicated significant differences with TOC scoring higher in both MTK and MTS than White teachers. Results also indicated that White teachers in city school settings scored significantly higher in MTK than those from more rural school. Results and implications for teacher preparation and professional development are discussed.
Stephen Harvey and Shane Pill
Research commentary suggests the utilization of Tactical Games Models (TGMs) only exists in isolated instances, particularly where teachers demonstrate true fidelity to these models. In contrast, many academics have adopted TGMs into their courses. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate reasons for this disparity. Participants were 44 academics and 80 physical education teachers. Results showed that academics provided a myriad of reasons why teachers may not use TGMs, although all agreed on the need for increased teacher professional development in TGMs. Physical education teachers’ outlined that numerous competing versions of TGMs was confusing and they required more hands-on examples of TGMs. Results further highlighted disparities between academics and teachers’ conceptual understanding and pedagogical applications of TGMs. There is a critical need to create improved connections between academics and physical education teachers, which could be achieved through the extended examination of the micropedagogies of teachers practice in TGMs.
Natalie J. Lander, Lisa Hanna, Helen Brown, Amanda Telford, Philip J. Morgan, Jo Salmon and Lisa M. Barnett
Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMSs) is positively associated with physical activity, fitness, and healthy weight status. However, adolescent girls exhibit very low levels of fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency.
In the current study, interviews were carried out with physical education teachers to investigate their perspectives of: (i) the importance and relevance of teaching FMSs to Year 7 girls, and (ii) the factors influencing effective FMS instruction.
There were two major findings in the data: Year 7 was perceived to be a critical period to instruct girls in FMSs; and current teaching practices were perceived to be suboptimal for effective FMS instruction.
Apparent deficits in current FMS teaching practice may be improved with more comprehensive teacher training (both during physical education teacher education (PETE) and in in-service professional development) in pedagogical strategies, curriculum interpretation, and meaningful assessment.
Tom Sharpe, Monica Fabian Lounsbery, Cindy Golden and Chris Deibler
Collaboration among teacher educators and practicing teachers is currently a popular education reform strategy. Two matched undergraduate cohorts, one prepared in a Professional Development School (PDS) collaborative, were followed over a 5-year period to determine the benefits of one collaborative model. Qualitative data were collected across the 2 undergraduate groups (n = 8, n = 6), two cooperating teacher groups (n = 16, n = 12), two public school administrative groups (n = 4, n = 3), and one faculty group (graduate student n = 3, faculty n = 3). Observational data were also collected for each undergraduate cohort, representing practicum, student teaching, and inservice teaching. Qualitative data over the 5-year study period showed trends from apprehension to receptivity and recommitment to the teacher education process for all collaborative participants. While not directly attributable to the collaboration model alone, exposed undergraduates and their students also demonstrated marked changes in select daily practices correlated with effective instruction. Challenges and implications for research on collaborative activities are last discussed.
Gloria E. Napper-Owen
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of induction assistance beyond the year of participation. Two second-year teachers mentored by the researcher in their first year of teaching participated. Changes in teacher process behaviors were analyzed, and emergent themes from the first year of teaching were examined to determine relevancy in the second year. The results indicated that both teachers spent more time in management during the second year observations than at the end of the first year of teaching to help achieve program outcomes for responsible movement. A shift in the amount of time in instructional behaviors indicated students were receiving more feedback while engaged in practice opportunities. The teachers indicated less difficulty in planning developmentally appropriate lessons and more confidence in their teaching. The beginning teachers felt more secure in their teaching abilities and engaged in new teaching strategies that enhanced their professional development.
Becky W. Pissanos and Pamela C. Allison
The purpose of this topical life history was to gain insight into the individual and socializing conditions that influenced an experienced elementary school physical education teacher’s perceptions and actions regarding continued professional learning. The teacher was interviewed in a series of five interviews over a 3-year period. The audiotaped transcriptions were subjected to the constant comparison data analysis technique, with the emergent patterns reported as results. Continued professional learning was valued as an essential concept associated with being a professional because it ultimately increased the teacher’s potential for helping students learn. Professional development experiences associated with the teacher’s undergraduate professional preparation institution and participation in a national curriculum project contributed most significantly to the teacher’s continued professional learning. The teacher’s continued professional learning was influenced by (a) students, (b) status, (c) administrative support, (d) community perceptions of sport, and (e) personal/professional interactions.
Nicole J. Smith, Monica A.F. Lounsbery and Thomas L. McKenzie
Physical education (PE) is recommended as a source for physical activity (PA) and learning generalizable PA skills. Few studies have objectively examined high school PE, specifically its delivery, including PA, lesson contexts, and class gender composition.
We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to assess PA during 6 lesson contexts in 47 boys-only, 54 girls-only, and 63 coed lessons from 7 high schools. MANOVA assessed differences based on class gender composition.
Actual lesson length was 27.7 min, only 65% of the scheduled length of class periods. Students engaged in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) 54% of the time, with boys being more active than girls. Game play was the most dominant context (47%), and little time was allocated to knowledge and skill development. Class size, lesson length, PA, and lesson contexts all differed by class gender composition (P < .001).
Many differences in the conduct of high school PE are related to class gender composition. Boys accumulated more MVPA than girls. When held, PE lessons contributed about 25% of recommended daily PA minutes; improvements could be made by increasing allocations to fitness and skill practice and reducing transition and management time. Teacher professional development is warranted.
Emi Tsuda, Phillip Ward, Yilin Li, Kelsey Higginson, Kyuil Cho, Yaohui He and Jianzhen Su
Purpose: Common and specialized content knowledge (CCK and SCK) and performance are requirements in the Society of Health and Physical Educators America initial physical education teacher education (PETE) standards, yet relationships among these requirements are unclear. The authors examined relationships among CCK, SCK, and performance. Method: A total of 127 students were recruited from basic instruction courses (non-PETE majors; n = 51) in which they were taught how to perform a sport and PETE major courses (PETE majors; n = 76) and a sport and SCK. Pre- and posttests on CCK, SCK, and performance were conducted in volleyball, basketball, badminton, and tennis. Results: No relationships among three measures were found. The non-PETE majors improved their scores in CCK and performance, whereas the PETE majors improved their scores in all three measures (CCK, p < .001–.002; SCK, p = 001–.002; and performance, p < .001–.006). Discussion/Conclusion: Teaching CCK, SCK, and performance is essential for the professional development of teachers as improving one does not appear to improve another. The study also demonstrates that CCK, SCK, and performance can be taught together within a course.
Rachel A. Jones, Annaleise Riethmuller, Kylie Hesketh, Jillian Trezise, Marijka Batterham and Anthony D. Okely
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a physical activity program for preschool children. A 20-week, 2-arm parallel cluster randomized controlled pilot trial was conducted. The intervention comprised structured activities for children and professional development for staff. The control group participated in usual care activities, which included designated inside and outside playtime. Primary outcomes were movement skill development and objectively measured physical activity. At follow-up, compared with children in the control group, children in the intervention group showed greater improvements in movement skill proficiency, with this improvement statically significant for overall movement skill development (adjust diff. = 2.08, 95% CI 0.76, 3.40; Cohen’s d = 0.47) and significantly greater increases in objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute) during the preschool day (adjust diff. = 110.5, 95% CI 33.6, 187.3; Cohen’s d = 0.46). This study demonstrates that a physical activity program implemented by staff within a preschool setting is feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious.