3 WINS Fitness is a student-delivered free exercise program for the community delivered in public parks. We believe this program, which operates without external funding and has been sustained for 6 years, is one significant solution to reducing the level of physical inactivity in the United States. The operative 3 WINS in our program are participant health, community health, and student professional development. The primary focus has been underserved communities, and our current eight programs in Los Angeles, serve over 300 participants regularly. Three challenges to the program are student empowerment, faculty understanding and involvement, and establishing the relationship between university and parks, which represent a vital partnership. However, the accomplishment of undergraduate students having such a dynamic impact on public health underscores the need for encouraging this sustainable and innovative strategy to increase the physical activity levels of communities across America.
Paul Jansma and Paul Surburg
This paper focuses on competency guidelines related to adapted physical education Ph.D. professional preparation in the United States with an emphasis on educational models and different orientations applicable to doctoral professional preparation. Key literature and related information are provided on teacher reform, standards, and competencies, with an emphasis on adapted physical education. The method of development, refinement, validation, and endorsement of the doctoral competencies over the course of this 6-year project precedes the listing of the final 79 competencies across two generic areas (adapted physical educator, researcher) and four other competency areas (administrator, movement scientist, advocate, pedagogue). The paper concludes with a discussion of quality control, doctoral program commonality and diversity, future competency guideline refinement efforts, and postgraduation professional development.
Susan E. Inglis
The status and representation of women in university sport continues to be an area of concern and responsibility for the athletic administrator. This paper presents a description of the major philosophical and organizational changes that have occurred with the governance of women’s intercollegiate sport. Data from American and Canadian studies describing the involvement patterns of women in university sport are presented, and areas for reform that will increase the status and representation of women in university sport are put forward. Three areas for reform presented include (a) securing commitment to change, (b) improving professional preparations in career planning for women at high school and university levels who aspire to careers in athletics, as well as professional development for women currently involved in athletic administration, and (c) gaining support from academic areas in the identification of effective, positive change for women in university sport.
Graham Cuskelly and Christopher J. Auld
This investigation examined the perceived importance of a range of occupational responsibilities of sport and recreation managers and whether there were differences according to the organizational setting. A self-administered mail questionnaire was sent to 196 sport and recreation managers in Queensland, Australia; there was an effective response rate of 124 (69%). The results indicated that the job responsibilities perceived as most important were public relations, financial management, program planning and management, and interpersonal communication. Significant differences were found between managers in different work settings. It was also evident that there were commonalities in the perceived importance of job competencies between the United States and Australia. The study concluded that there have been generally consistent findings about the perceived importance of job competencies, and that different sectors of the sport industry require different emphases in curricula development and professional development programs.
Juliette Stebbings, Ian M. Taylor, Christopher M. Spray and Nikos Ntoumanis
Embedded in the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, we obtained self-report data from 418 paid and voluntary coaches from a variety of sports and competitive levels with the aim of exploring potential antecedents of coaches’ perceived autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors. Controlling for socially desirable responses, structural equation modeling revealed that greater job security and opportunities for professional development, and lower work–life conflict were associated with psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn, was related to an adaptive process of psychological well-being and perceived autonomy support toward athletes. In contrast, higher work–life conflict and fewer opportunities for development were associated with a distinct maladaptive process of thwarted psychological needs, psychological ill-being, and perceived controlling interpersonal behavior. The results highlight how the coaching context may impact upon coaches’ psychological health and their interpersonal behavior toward athletes. Moreover, evidence is provided for the independence of adaptive and maladaptive processes within the self-determination theory paradigm.
Jeffery P. Simons and Mark B. Andersen
The history and development of applied sport psychology practice has not received the same attention and documentation as that of academic sport psychology. After a brief introduction to the literature on the history and professional development of applied sport psychology, some personal perspectives from consultants who have been practicing “in the field” over the last two to four decades are provided. Eleven well-known practitioners discuss how they got started, how their consulting has developed, what significant experiences they have had, and what lessons they have learned along the way. They relate their views on the progression of professional practice and what the future may hold. Finally, they offer some encouragement, cautions, and words of wisdom for fellow and future colleagues in sport psychology consulting.
Artur Poczwardowski, Clay P. Sherman and Keith P. Henschen
This article outlines 11 factors that a consultant may consider when planning, implementing, and evaluating psychological services. These factors are professional boundaries; professional philosophy; making contact; assessment; conceptualizing athletes’ concerns and potential interventions; range, types, and organization of service; program implementation; managing the self as an intervention instrument; program and consultant evaluation; conclusions and implications; and leaving the setting. All 11 factors represent important considerations for applied sport psychology professionals. Although consultants each have their own unique style and approach, these 11 factors are prerequisite considerations that form the foundation of a consultant’s effective practice. These guidelines may provide direction for a practitioner’s professional development, and as such, need time and commitment to be realized.
Jaimie McMullen, Pamela Kulinna and Donetta Cothran
The purpose of this study was to explore classroom teachers’ perceptions of incorporating physical activity breaks into their classroom and to determine specific features of preferred activity breaks. These perceptions are considered within the conceptual framework of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Twelve elementary and high school classroom teachers from one Indigenous school district participated in the study. The data were collected using semistructured interviews and teachers’ reflective journals and were analyzed inductively by conducting systematic searches for patterns across data types. Emergent themes included: the need for and threats to classroom control; a preference for breaks with connections to academic content; and the importance of implementation ease and student enjoyment. The findings indicated that teachers prefer activity breaks that are easy to manage, quick, academically oriented and enjoyable for students. These findings have practical implications when considering physical education teacher education and professional development that targets classroom teachers.
Brendan Cropley, Andrew Miles, Sheldon Hanton and Ailsa Niven
This article offers an exploration of factors that influence the effectiveness of applied sport psychology delivery through reflection on a series of consulting experiences. Knowledge gained by a British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) trainee sport psychologist (Cropley), through a process of reflective practice during the first year of supervised experience, is presented around a number of themes that have emerged from current literature regarding the characteristics of effective service providers (A. Anderson, A. Miles, P. Robinson, & C. Mahoney, 2004). It is argued that reflection improves self-awareness and generates knowledge in action that can enhance the delivery of applied sport psychology. Support is therefore provided for the adoption of reflective practice as a tool for personal and professional development.
Christine Kimber, Eydie Abercrombie, Jacqueline N. Epping, LeeAnn Mordecai, Jimmy Newkirk Jr. and Michael Ray
Physical activity has emerged as a distinct area of public health practice. As this field evolved, the need for a professional organization for physical activity practitioners in public health became evident. A collaboration of several existing public health professional organizations formed to address this new area of public health practice. The collaboration laid the foundation to establish a professional organization. National Association of Physical Activity Practitioners in Public Health (NSPAPPH) was launched in April 2006. NSPAPPH accomplishments to date include convening a national meeting of physical activity practitioners, conducting strategic planning, adopting bylaws and core competencies for professional practice, developing a website and electronic newsletter, and establishing training opportunities for practitioners.
Future plans for NSPAPPH include development of a professional certification for physical activity practitioners in public health; enhancement of training and professional development opportunities; recruitment of members from national, tribal, state, and local organizations working in public and private sectors; publications of journal articles, reports, and issue briefs; and development of a policy agenda. Implementing these plans will serve to strengthen public health infrastructure for physical activity, thus improving the physical activity behaviors of Americans and the health of the nation.