A total of 100 boys and 91 girls, ages 11 to 16 years, completed a discontinuous treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion to determine the oxygen uptake/blood lactate relationship. Maturational stage was assessed in 72 boys and 47 girls using Tanner’s indices. Mean blood lactate at peak VO2 was significantly higher in the girls compared to the boys (6.1 vs. 5.8 mmol•l-1, P<0.01). Lactate at peak VO2 and percent peak VO2 at 4.0 mmol•l-1 were not significantly correlated with chronological age (p>0.05) in either sex, although a relationship was obtained between chronological age and percent peak VO2 at 2.5 mmol•l-“1 for boys (r= ‒0.226, p<.05) and girls (r= ‒0.272, p0.05). Analysis of variance revealed no significant changes (p>0.05) in any of the lactate variables examined with progression through the Tanner stages of maturity.
Joanne R. Williams and Neil Armstrong
Jean Côté, John H. Salmela and Storm Russell
The purpose of this study is to report the knowledge used in training and competition by 17 expert high-performance gymnastic coaches. A qualitative research methodology was used to collect and inductively analyze the data. The knowledge elicited for the competition component was categorized as competition site, competition floor, and trial competitions. These categories indicated that the coaches are minimally involved with the gymnasts in competition. The knowledge of the coaches elicited within the training component were categorized as coach involvement in training, intervention style, technical skills, mental skills, and simulation. Properties of these categories that were extensively discussed by the expert coaches, such as teaching progressions, being supportive, and helping athletes to deal with stress, are consistent with the literature on coaching and on sport psychology. Other aspects considered important in the sport psychology literature, such as developing concentration skills, were not discussed as thoroughly by the expert coaches.
Heather Hayes Betz, Jonathan Myers, Alyssa Jaffe, Kimberly Smith and Ronald Dalman
Quantifying lifetime physical activity using self-reported measures is challenging due to reliance on recall, especially in older populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the 1-year reproducibility of the Veterans Physical Activity Questionnaire (VAPAQ) in a cohort of patients with documented abdominal aortic aneurysm disease (AAA).
Subjects included men (n = 52) and women (n = 3) enrolled in AAA STOP, a randomized trial designed to test the ability of supervised exercise training to modify AAA biology and early disease progression.
The overall correlation coefficient for lifetime recreational energy expenditure between the 2 examinations was 0.93 (P < .001), with an overall difference of 26 kcal/week, a typical error (standard deviation of the differences) of 171 kcals/week, and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 15.5%.
The VAPAQ is a reproducible tool to quantify lifetime energy expenditure in older adults with documented vascular disease.
Rachael C. Stone and Joseph Baker
The prevalence of arthritis in aging populations continues to rapidly grow. Research has highlighted 2 principal risk factors for progression of arthritis-related biopsychosocial symptoms: age and physical inactivity. This study examined the relationship between and within physical activity and age on biopsychosocial symptoms of arthritis in adults (age ≥ 30 yr). Hierarchical, multiple-regression analyses were conducted on the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 4.2, 2009–2010, N = 19,103). Results revealed that more-active adults had significantly fewer symptoms (physical unstd. B = −.23, p ≤ .001; pyschosocial unstd. B = −.51, p ≤ .001). In addition, as age increased, physical symptoms intensified and psychosocial symptoms tapered (physical unstd. B = .24, p ≤ .001; psychosocial unstd. B = −.45, p ≤ .001). Inactive older adults had the highest level of physical symptoms, while inactive younger adults had the highest level of psychosocial symptoms (p ≤ .001). Findings highlight the need to target physical activity interventions to specific age cohorts and particular biopsychosocial symptomologies.
Joaquin A. Barrios, Todd D. Royer and Irene S. Davis
Dynamic knee alignment is speculated to have a stronger relationship to medial knee loading than radiographic alignment. Therefore, we aimed to determine what frontal plane knee kinematic variable correlated most strongly to the knee adduction moment. That variable was then compared with radiographic alignment as a predictor of the knee adduction moment. Therefore, 55 subjects with medial knee OA underwent three-dimensional gait analysis. A subset of 21 subjects also underwent full-limb radiographic assessment for knee alignment. Correlations and regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between the kinematic, kinetic and radiographic findings. Peak knee adduction angle most strongly correlated to the knee adduction moment of the kinematic variables. In comparison with radiographic alignment, peak knee adduction angle was the stronger predictor. Given that most epidemiological studies on knee OA use radiographic alignment in an attempt to understand progression, these results are meaningful.
Jeffery P. Simons and Mark B. Andersen
The history and development of applied sport psychology practice has not received the same attention and documentation as that of academic sport psychology. After a brief introduction to the literature on the history and professional development of applied sport psychology, some personal perspectives from consultants who have been practicing “in the field” over the last two to four decades are provided. Eleven well-known practitioners discuss how they got started, how their consulting has developed, what significant experiences they have had, and what lessons they have learned along the way. They relate their views on the progression of professional practice and what the future may hold. Finally, they offer some encouragement, cautions, and words of wisdom for fellow and future colleagues in sport psychology consulting.
Campbell Thompson and Mark B. Andersen
This case study involves the progression from a cognitive-behavioral, psychological skills training approach with a rugby football player experiencing adjustment and mood disorder to a psychodynamic and interpersonal engagement with the client using themes from Buddhist psychotherapy. The study charts the development of the psychologist’s understanding of his relationships with clients and with his supervisor. We present a study of three people (i.e., the client, the psychologist, the supervisor) and how their stories and interpersonal interactions are interwoven from a Buddhist-psychodynamic perspective. We examine the influences of the dominant White culture on the male psychologist’s perceptions contrasted with the client’s background as a Pacific Islander. In addition, we present a projective test, which was central to the unfolding of this case study, designed for use with athletes. This case study is a confessional tale (Sparkes, 2002) told in the first-person from the psychologist’s viewpoint.
Shlomit Radom-Aizik and Dan M. Cooper
In this review, we highlight promising new discoveries that may generate useful and clinically relevant insights into the mechanisms that link exercise with growth during critical periods of development. Growth in childhood and adolescence is unique among mammals and is a dynamic process regulated by an evolution of hormonal and inflammatory mediators, age-dependent progression of gene expression, and environmentally modulated epigenetic mechanisms. Many of these same processes likely affect molecular transducers of physical activity. How the molecular signaling associated with growth is synchronized with signaling associated with exercise is poorly understood. Recent advances in “omics”—namely genomics and epigenetics, metabolomics, and proteomics—now provide exciting approaches and tools that can be used for the first time to address this gap. A biologic definition of “healthy” exercise that links the metabolic transducers of physical activity with parallel processes that regulate growth will transform health policy and guidelines that promote optimal use of physical activity.
Jordan D. Herbison, Luc J. Martin and Mustafa Sarkar
Adversity is viewed as both an inevitable and an important experience for elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to explore elite athletes’ perceptions of the experiences and characteristics that helped them overcome a shared sport-specific adversity. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 professional athletes (M age = 27.25, SD = 3.28 yr) who had progressed to careers in the National Hockey League (NHL) despite not being selected in the annual amateur entry draft. Participants discussed their long-term objectives of playing in the NHL, previous experiences with adversity, certain psychological characteristics that facilitated their progression (e.g., competitiveness, passion, confidence), and the significance of social support as key factors that helped them overcome the initial and subsequent adversities associated with being unselected during the amateur entry draft. Practical implications and proposed avenues for future research are discussed in the context of the study’s limitations.
Michael L. Voight and Gray Cook
Enhancing the ability to function within one's environment and to perform activities of daily living is a common goal in rehabilitation. The entire rehabilitation process should be focused on improving the patient's functional status. A functional progression for return to activity can be developed by breaking specific activities down into a hierarchy and then performing them in a sequence that allows for acquisition or reacquisition of skill. Rehabilitation following injury has focused upon restoring muscular strength, endurance, and joint flexibility without any consideration of the role of the neuromuscular mechanism. A common error in rehabilitation is assuming that clinical programs alone using traditional methods will safely return the athlete to function. Limiting athletic rehabilitation to these traditional programs often results in an incomplete restoration of athletic ability and quite possibly an increased risk of reinjury. Reactive neuromuscular training fills the gap left by traditional rehabilitation in order to return the athlete to activity.