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Marlene A. Dixon, Stacy M. Warner and Jennifer E. Bruening

This qualitative study uses expectancy-value and life course theories (Giele & Elder, 1998) to examine both the proximal and distal impact of early family socialization on enduring female participation in sport. Seventeen National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I female head coaches from the U.S. participated in interviews regarding parental influence on their sport involvement. Participants revealed three general mechanisms of sport socialization: a) role modeling, b) providing experience, and c) interpreting experience. Parental influence impacted their enduring involvement in sport by normalizing the sport experience, particularly in terms of gender, and by allowing them a voice in their own participation decisions. Insights regarding the roles of both parents and the interactive and contextual nature of socialization for increasing female participation are discussed.

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Samaya Farooq and Andrew Parker

This qualitative study of a British Islamic independent school explores the construction of religious masculinities within the lives of a cohort of Muslim adolescent males. An ethnographic analysis is presented whereby boys’ physical education is located as a strategic site for the development of Muslim masculine identities. Adopting a symbolic interactionist perspective, the article discusses the representation of pupil masculinities within the school and the specific role that Islam, sport, and physical education played in respondent lives. Findings highlight how religion provided a central mechanism through which pupils sought to construct and negotiate their masculine selves. In turn, physical education served as an avenue through which respondents could embrace and embody their sense of self and express a series of broader religious ideals.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Thomas M. Dodge and Thomas G. Bowman

Context:

Reciprocal learning appears to be occurring in athletic training clinical education. Students and preceptors can learn from one another, particularly if both parties are open to learning from each other.

Objective:

Examine facilitators and barriers to reciprocal learning in the athletic training clinical education setting.

Design:

Exploratory qualitative study.

Setting:

Athletic training programs.

Patients or Other Participants:

Our recruitment, which was based upon data redundancy, included 10 preceptors and 10 athletic training students. The preceptors had an average of 5 ± 3.5 years of experience supervising students. The athletic training student sample consisted of 8 seniors and 2 juniors.

Main Outcome Measures:

Participants responded to a series of questions by journaling their thoughts and opinions. Data were collected and stored on QuestionPro, a secure website. Data were analyzed by a general inductive approach. Credibility was established by (1) researcher triangulation, (2) peer review, and (3) member checks.

Results:

The relationship between the preceptor and the student along with reception to reciprocal learning emerged as facilitators, while a lack of confidence on the students’ behalf and time constraints can limit chances for reciprocal learning.

Conclusions:

Reciprocal learning has been identified as being mutually beneficial to the student and preceptor. Our findings highlight that for this type of learning to be successful, there has to be a communal interest in learning and that the use of current clinical cases and students’ current coursework provide benchmarks for discussion and learning.

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Tessa M. Pollard and Cornelia Guell

Background:

We assessed the quality of data on physical activity obtained by recall from Muslim women of South Asian origin, and the feasibility of using accelerometer-based physical activity monitors to provide more objective measures of physical activity in this group.

Methods:

In this largely qualitative study, 22 British Pakistani women were asked to wear accelerometers (the GT1M Actigraph and/or the Sensewear Armband) for 4 days, provided 2 24-hour recalls of activities, and were interviewed about their experiences with the monitors.

Results:

Women reported spending most of their time in housework and childcare, activities which generated the majority of recorded bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, women had difficulty in recalling the timing, and assessing the intensity, of these usually unstructured activities. A significant minority of accelerometer datasets were incomplete and some women reported either forgetting to wear the acceler-ometer or finding it intrusive.

Conclusions:

Questionnaires are unlikely to provide an accurate assessment of physical activity in this group of women. This suggests that accelerometer data will be preferable. However, collecting sufficient data for large-scale studies using activity monitors in this population will be challenging.

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Ingrid H.M. Steenhuis, Steffie B.C. Nooy, Machiel J.G. Moes and Albertine J. Schuit

Background:

Physical activity levels in most affluent countries are low and many people do not meet the current recommendations. Particularly for people with a low income, economic strategies seem promising to stimulate taking part in sports activities. This study investigated the importance of economic restraints for taking part in sports activities as well as perceptions of low-income people toward different pricing interventions.

Methods:

A qualitative study was conducted, using semistructured, individual interviews with 27 low-income men and women. The framework approach was used to analyze the transcripts of the interviews.

Results:

The respondents considered finances to be an important barrier for participating in sports activities, together with some individual barriers. Promising pricing strategies are a discount on the subscription to the fitness or sports club, a 1 month free trial, and free entrance to the swimming pool once a week.

Conclusions:

Pricing strategies may be a promising intervention to increase physical activity levels of low-income people. However, this study indicates that this should be coupled with an intervention directed at individual barriers. Some pricing strategies will be used and appreciated more by low-income people than other pricing strategies. In addition, pricing strategies should be tailored to individual needs and preferences.

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Luis Columna, Denzil A. Streete, Samuel R. Hodge, Suzanna Rocco Dillon, Beth Myers, Michael L. Norris, Tiago V. Barreira and Kevin S. Heffernan

Despite having the desire to become physically active as a family, parents of children with visual impairments often lack the skills and resources needed to provide appropriate physical activities (PAs) for their children. The purpose of this study was to explore the intentions of parents of children with visual impairments toward including their children in PAs after participating in a PA program. In this descriptive qualitative study, the participants were 10 parents of children with visual impairments. A series of workshops were designed to provide parents with the skills and resources needed to promote PA for their family. Upon completion of the workshops, parents took part in one-on-one semistructured interviews that were subsequently transcribed and analyzed using a thematic line-by-line process. Two interdependent themes emerged from the data analyses: (a) eye-opening experiences and (b) transformed, more hopeful, and optimistic outlook. The results revealed that through the PA intervention, parents learned teaching strategies that were intended to increase their PA opportunities and garnered resources that allowed them to teach their children to participate in PA.

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Paul J. McCarthy, Marc V. Jones, Chris G. Harwood and Steve Olivier

One reason sport psychologists teach psychological skills is to enhance performance in sport; but the value of psychological skills for young athletes is questionable because of the qualitative and quantitative differences between children and adults in their understanding of abstract concepts such as mental skills. To teach these skills effectively to young athletes, sport psychologists need to appreciate what young athletes implicitly understand about such skills because maturational (e.g., cognitive, social) and environmental (e.g., coaches) factors can influence the progressive development of children and youth. In the present qualitative study, we explored young athletes’ (aged 10–15 years) understanding of four basic psychological skills: goal setting, mental imagery, self-talk, and relaxation. Young athletes (n= 118: 75 males and 43 females) completed an open-ended questionnaire to report their understanding of these four basic psychological skills. Compared with the older youth athletes, the younger youth athletes were less able to explain the meaning of each psychological skill. Goal setting and mental imagery were better understood than self-talk and relaxation. Based on these fndings, sport psychologists should consider adapting interventions and psychoeducational programs to match young athletes’ age and developmental level.

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Brock McMullen, Hester L. Henderson, Donna Harp Ziegenfuss and Maria Newton

Perceptions of relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) are developed from the interpretation of another’s verbal and nonverbal behaviors and have been shown to impact self-efficacy, which, in sport, can influence areas such as an individual’s choice to participate and level of enjoyment. This qualitative study identified specific coaching behaviors that high school male athletes use to inform their RISE beliefs. Forty-three high school male student-athletes participated in focus group interviews regarding their high school sport experiences, specifically related to how they perceive various coaching behaviors. Analysis revealed seven major themes: general encouragement, efficacy building statements, instruction, task-oriented statements, challenging opportunities, focused interpersonal attention, and expressiveness. A unique aspect compared to similar studies was the emergence of subthemes related to coaches caring about academic performance or providing opportunities to be a starter or leader on the team. Findings provided support for the tripartite model of efficacy beliefs in that high school athletes were aware and perceptive of different coaching behaviors they personally experienced. There was also a strong desire conveyed by the student-athletes for a personal relationship with their coaches outside of the athletic setting, indicating that coaches should do their best to communicate individually to each athlete.

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Danielle Lovett Carter and Norelee Kennedy

Background:

Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is being increasingly recognized as a cause of hip pain in athletes and is a growing indication for arthroscopic surgery. Few studies have attempted to address patient views on outcome after arthroscopy, and no qualitative studies have been carried out to date.

Objectives:

To explore athletes' perceptions of rehabilitation outcome, the rehabilitative process, and return to sport and to gain insight into factors that affected this process.

Methodology:

A retrospective qualitative approach was adopted using semistructured interviews. Eight eligible participants were interviewed. Each had been treated with hip arthroscopy for FAI from September to November 2010. Data were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis.

Results:

Three main themes emerged. (1) The ability to participate in sport; athletes were relatively satisfied with outcome despite some limitations in sporting ability. (2) Perceptions of hip problems; there was a lack of understanding and an association of hip problems with older people among the general public. (3) Athletes' perception of rehabilitation; athletes were dissatisfied with the rehabilitation and sought greater physiotherapy input.

Conclusions:

Overall, athletes were relatively satisfied with their outcome 1 y after hip arthroscopy, despite some having to adapt their sporting activities. Key areas that need to be addressed in future research include factors affecting outcomes of hip arthroscopy, longer-term outcomes, perception of FAI among the public and health practitioners, and the development of a standardized evidence-based rehabilitation protocol.

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Keven A. Prusak, Todd Pennington, Susan Vincent Graser, Aaron Beighle and Charles F. Morgan

Siedentop and Locke (1997) proposed three critical elements that must exist in our profession to make a difference and achieve systemic success in physical education (SSPE): (a) quality PE in the schools, (b) effective physical education teacher education (PETE) programs, and (c) a working relationship between the two. Using Cuban’s (1992) curriculum change and stability framework, this qualitative study examines the existence of a program that has achieved all three elements in the southwestern US. For over three decades some seventy-two teachers in dozens of schools have yearly served over 40,000 children. This study revealed a fully functioning model consisting of four key, interdependent components driven by a system of accountability measures. The results of the SSPE model—quality PE for children—is achieved by (a) district-wide mandated curriculum, methodologies and language, (b) well-defined district PE coordinator roles, (c) a partnership university, and (d) frequent, ongoing professional development. Results of this study strengthen Siedentop and Locke’s (1997) recommendation for collaborative efforts between universities and partner school districts and provide a model to guide and manage the curriculum change process in K-6 PE.