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Sheri J. Hartman, Dori Pekmezi, Shira I. Dunsiger and Bess H. Marcus

randomized controlled trial of a 12-month physical activity intervention. Methods Study Design and Sample The Pasos Hacia La Salud study was a randomized controlled trial of an Internet-based physical activity intervention for Spanish-speaking Latinas compared with a contact control arm. No content related

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Linda Corbally, Mick Wilkinson and Melissa A. Fothergill

the review to randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies of all design types were included because non-randomized trials and simple before-after and case-control designs have been suggested to still have value in systematic reviews for exploring unknown benefits and harms, and adding to evidence

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Vicente de Dios Álvarez and Carlos Ayán Pérez

aforementioned information that has been carried out. To provide the highest level of scientific evidence, this kind of research should be based on the inclusion and detailed analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have been published on the subject so far. 9 Under these circumstances, the

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Sarah J. Wherry, Cheryl Der Ananian and Pamela D. Swan

fall-related fractures in older people: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials . Int J Epidemiol . 2017 ; 46 ( 1 ): 149 – 161 . PubMed ID: 27477031 27477031 17. Pettee Gabriel K , McClain JJ , Lee CD , et al . Evaluation of physical activity measures used in middle-aged women

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Hannah Dorling, Jieg Blervacq and Yori Gidron

not occur in controls. This finding, observed in a randomized controlled trial, suggests a causal relation between changes in barriers and posttreatment PA levels. It reveals the necessity to alter people’s barriers to induce healthy changes in their behavior. The main limitations of the present study

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Carolee Winstein

randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions for recovery should be an imperative ( Campbell et al., 2000 ). We return to the issue raised earlier, “social and personal factors can have a high impact on stroke recovery in humans….and are not well modelled in preclinical research”. One noted

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Brad Donohue, Yulia Gavrilova, Marina Galante, Elena Gavrilova, Travis Loughran, Jesse Scott, Graig Chow, Christopher P. Plant and Daniel N. Allen

health help-seeking in elite athletes: An exploratory randomized controlled trial . Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14 ( 3 ), 69 . doi:10.2196/jmir.1864 10.2196/jmir.1864 Gulliver , A. , Griffiths , K.M. , Mackinnon , A. , Batterham , P.J. , & Stanimirovic , R. ( 2015 ). The mental

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Bradley M. Wipfli, Chad D. Rethorst and Daniel M. Landers

A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effects of exercise on anxiety. Because previous meta-analyses in the area included studies of varying quality, only randomized, controlled trials were included in the present analysis. Results from 49 studies show an overall effect size of -0.48, indicating larger reductions in anxiety among exercise groups than no-treatment control groups. Exercise groups also showed greater reductions in anxiety compared with groups that received other forms of anxiety-reducing treatment (effect size = -0.19). Because only randomized, controlled trials were examined, these results provide Level 1, Grade A evidence for using exercise in the treatment of anxiety. In addition, exercise dose data were calculated to examine the relationship between dose of exercise and the corresponding magnitude of effect size.

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George A. Kelley and Kristi S. Kelley

The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of exercise on resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in children and adolescents. Twenty-five studies that included 84 groups (45 exercise, 39 control) and 3,189 subjects (1,885 exercise, 1,304 control) met the criteria for inclusion. Using a random effects model, non-significant decreases of approximately 2% were found for resting systolic (mean – SEM, –2 – 1 mmHg, 95% CI, –4 to 1 mmHg) and diastolic (mean – SEM, –1 – 1 mmHg, 95% CI, –3 to 1 mmHg) blood pressure. Greater decreases in resting systolic blood pressure were found for nonrandomized versus randomized controlled trials (p = 0.001). There was also a statistically significant association between changes in resting systolic blood pressure and initial blood pressure (r = 0.73, p < 0.001) and body weight (r = 0.64, p < 0.001). However, when limited to randomized trials, these results were no longer statistically significant. The results of this study suggest that exercise does not reduce resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in children and adolescents. However, a need exists for additional randomized controlled trials, especially among hypertensive children and adolescents.

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Thelma J. Mielenz, Michael C. Edwards and Leigh F. Callahan

Benefits of physical activity for those with arthritis are clear, yet physical activity is difficult to initiate and maintain. Self-efficacy is a key modifiable psychosocial determinant of physical activity. This study examined two scales for self-efficacy for exercise behavior (SEEB) to identify their strengths and weaknesses using item response theory (IRT) from community-based randomized controlled trials of physical activity programs in adults with arthritis. The 2 SEEB scales included the 9-item scale by Resnick developed with older adults and the 5-item scale by Marcus developed with employed adults. All IRT analyses were conducted using the graded-response model. IRT assumptions were assessed using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The IRT analyses indicated that these scales are precise and reliable measures for identifying people with arthritis and low SEEB. The Resnick SEEB scale is slightly more precise at lower levels of self-efficacy in older adults with arthritis.