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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Vicente de Dios Álvarez and Carlos Ayán Pérez

aforementioned information that has been carried out. To provide the highest level of scientific evidence, this kind of research should be based on the inclusion and detailed analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have been published on the subject so far. 9 Under these circumstances, the

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Hannah Dorling, Jieg Blervacq and Yori Gidron

not occur in controls. This finding, observed in a randomized controlled trial, suggests a causal relation between changes in barriers and posttreatment PA levels. It reveals the necessity to alter people’s barriers to induce healthy changes in their behavior. The main limitations of the present study

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Sarah J. Wherry, Cheryl Der Ananian and Pamela D. Swan

fall-related fractures in older people: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials . Int J Epidemiol . 2017 ; 46 ( 1 ): 149 – 161 . PubMed ID: 27477031 27477031 17. Pettee Gabriel K , McClain JJ , Lee CD , et al . Evaluation of physical activity measures used in middle-aged women

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Elissa Burton, Karen Levit, Jim Codde, Keith D. Hill and Anne-Marie Hill

exercise programs or motivating older people to increase their physical activity ( Burton et al., 2018 ). Of the 18 included studies (six randomized controlled trials [RCTs]), 16 reported improvements in physical activity levels or function; however, the meta-analysis favored the control group for a 6-min

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Kyle J. Miller, Rodolfo I. Martínez-Lemos, Antón Giráldez and Carlos Ayán

and meta-analyses that synthesize the scientific knowledge available on the subject, especially those based on the results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are traditionally considered the gold standard for judging the benefits of treatments. 24 To the authors’ knowledge, only one

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Linda Corbally, Mick Wilkinson and Melissa A. Fothergill

the review to randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies of all design types were included because non-randomized trials and simple before-after and case-control designs have been suggested to still have value in systematic reviews for exploring unknown benefits and harms, and adding to evidence

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Carolee Winstein

randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions for recovery should be an imperative ( Campbell et al., 2000 ). We return to the issue raised earlier, “social and personal factors can have a high impact on stroke recovery in humans….and are not well modelled in preclinical research”. One noted

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Bradley M. Wipfli, Chad D. Rethorst and Daniel M. Landers

A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effects of exercise on anxiety. Because previous meta-analyses in the area included studies of varying quality, only randomized, controlled trials were included in the present analysis. Results from 49 studies show an overall effect size of -0.48, indicating larger reductions in anxiety among exercise groups than no-treatment control groups. Exercise groups also showed greater reductions in anxiety compared with groups that received other forms of anxiety-reducing treatment (effect size = -0.19). Because only randomized, controlled trials were examined, these results provide Level 1, Grade A evidence for using exercise in the treatment of anxiety. In addition, exercise dose data were calculated to examine the relationship between dose of exercise and the corresponding magnitude of effect size.

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Tyler L. Malone, Adam Kern, Emily Klueh and Daniel Eisenberg

relative to articles for both coping strategies. To test both hypotheses, we used a randomized controlled trial to compare video- and text-based interventions designed to deliver coping skills information to college student-athletes. Method Participants We recruited study participants via e-mail from all

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Brad Donohue, Yulia Gavrilova, Marina Galante, Elena Gavrilova, Travis Loughran, Jesse Scott, Graig Chow, Christopher P. Plant and Daniel N. Allen

health help-seeking in elite athletes: An exploratory randomized controlled trial . Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14 ( 3 ), 69 . doi:10.2196/jmir.1864 10.2196/jmir.1864 Gulliver , A. , Griffiths , K.M. , Mackinnon , A. , Batterham , P.J. , & Stanimirovic , R. ( 2015 ). The mental