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Angela Papadimitriou and Mark Perry

. The former would give an indication of the immediate treatment effect, and the latter would give a measure of the longer term effects. Study types Only randomized controlled trials were included in this review, to minimize selection bias. Randomization, provided there are sufficient participants, is

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Heather J. Leach, Katie B. Potter and Mary C. Hidde

participants included in this study. Procedures This study was a pilot, 2-arm randomized controlled trial, comparing a group-dynamics-based PA intervention with an individually supervised (ie, personal training) PA intervention. Preintervention to postintervention results and details of the intervention have

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Juliana S. Oliveira, Leanne Hassett, Catherine Sherrington, Elisabeth Ramsay, Catherine Kirkham, Shona Manning and Anne Tiedemann

-sectional study involving a secondary analysis of baseline data collected as a part of two randomized controlled trials ( n  = 205, ACTRN12614000016639 and ACTRN12615001190594). The design and methodology of these trials are described in detail elsewhere ( Tiedemann et al., 2015 , 2016 ). In brief, the two

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Samuel R. Nyman

synthesize the evidence for Tai Chi for the prevention of falls among older adults. This review will focus on gold-standard evidence—meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials—most of which has been conducted with community-dwelling older adults. For the first time, I will bring together in one place a

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Heloisa Suzano de Almeida, Flávia Porto, Marcelo Porretti, Gabriella Lopes, Daniele Fiorot, Priscila dos Santos Bunn and Elirez Bezerra da Silva

, Bhriain, Saunders, & Clifford, 2015 ; Sharp & Hewitt, 2014 ). The present meta-analysis is justified because it is more recent and includes six new randomized controlled trials (RCTs), of which five RCTs were with one experimental dance group each and one RCT was with two groups, totaling seven new

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Vicente de Dios Álvarez and Carlos Ayán Pérez

aforementioned information that has been carried out. To provide the highest level of scientific evidence, this kind of research should be based on the inclusion and detailed analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have been published on the subject so far. 9 Under these circumstances, the

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Hannah Dorling, Jieg Blervacq and Yori Gidron

not occur in controls. This finding, observed in a randomized controlled trial, suggests a causal relation between changes in barriers and posttreatment PA levels. It reveals the necessity to alter people’s barriers to induce healthy changes in their behavior. The main limitations of the present study

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Sarah J. Wherry, Cheryl Der Ananian and Pamela D. Swan

fall-related fractures in older people: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials . Int J Epidemiol . 2017 ; 46 ( 1 ): 149 – 161 . PubMed ID: 27477031 27477031 17. Pettee Gabriel K , McClain JJ , Lee CD , et al . Evaluation of physical activity measures used in middle-aged women

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Stefano Palermi, Anna M. Sacco, Immacolata Belviso, Nastasia Marino, Francesco Gambardella, Carlo Loiacono and Felice Sirico

from pre–post assessment and compared with control group. Note. DM = diabetes mellitus; M = male; F = female; RCT = randomized controlled trial. The duration from the diagnosis of diabetes ranged from 8.5 ( Orr et al., 2006 ; Tsang et al., 2007 ) to 13 ( Ahn & Song, 2012 ) years. Only Ahn and Song

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Elissa Burton, Karen Levit, Jim Codde, Keith D. Hill and Anne-Marie Hill

exercise programs or motivating older people to increase their physical activity ( Burton et al., 2018 ). Of the 18 included studies (six randomized controlled trials [RCTs]), 16 reported improvements in physical activity levels or function; however, the meta-analysis favored the control group for a 6-min