Electromyograms used to assess neuromuscular demand during high-velocity tasks require normalization to aid interpretation. This paper posits that, to date, methodological approaches to normalization have been ineffective and have limited the application of electromyography (EMG). There is minimal investigation seeking alternative normalization methods, which must be corrected to improve EMG application in sports. It is recognized that differing normalization methods will prevent cross-study comparisons. Users of EMG should aim to identify normalization methods that provide good reliability and a representative measure of muscle activation. The shortcomings of current normalization methods in high-velocity muscle actions assessment are evident. Advances in assessing alternate normalization methods have been done in cycling and sprinting. It is advised that when normalizing high-intensity muscle actions, isometric methods are used with caution and a dynamic alternative, where the muscle action is similar to that of the task is preferred. It is recognized that optimal normalization methods may be muscle and task dependent.
Nick Ball and Joanna Scurr
Jaime R. DeLuca and Jessica Braunstein-Minkove
Experiential learning has become a driving force of universities around the world, and is a crucial part of many sport management programs. This is particularly true given the competitive nature of the field and the rapid changes the industry continuously faces. This work seeks to reexamine the sport management curricula to ensure a progression and evolution toward a superior level of student preparedness for their internship experiences. Through the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods, our major findings recommend a focus on academic, experiential, and professional development. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed along with limitations and directions for further investigation.
Michael W. Beets, Guy C. Le Masurier, Aaron Beighle, David A. Rowe, Charles F. Morgan, Jack Rutherford, Michael Wright, Paul Darst and Robert Pangrazi
The purpose of this study was to cross-validate international BMI-referenced steps/d cut points for US girls (12,000 steps/d) and boys (15,000 steps/d) 6 to 12 years of age.
Secondary pedometer-determined physical activity data from US children (N = 1067; 633 girls and 434 boys, 6 to 12 years) were analyzed. Using international BMI classifications, cross-validation of the 12,000 and 15,000 steps/d cut points was examined by the classification precision, sensitivity, and specificity for each age–sex stratum.
For girls (boys) 6 to 12 years, the 12,000 (15,000) steps/d cut points correctly classified 42% to 60% (38% to 67%) as meeting (achieved steps/d cut point and healthy weight) and failing (did not achieve steps/d cut point and overweight). Sensitivity ranged from 55% to 85% (64% to 100%); specificity ranged from 23% to 62% (19% to 50%).
The utility of pedometer steps/d cut points was minimal in this sample given their inability to differentiate among children who failed to achieve the recommended steps/d and exhibited an unhealthy weight. Caution, therefore, should be used in applying previous steps/d cut points to US children.
Stephanie M. Mazerolle and Christianne Eason
Yan Shi, Wendy Yajun Huang, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong
measurement of a single movement behavior to that of 3 behaviors, PA, screen time (ST), and sleep, within a 24-hour period. The guidelines set specific daily recommendations, including moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA, ≥60 min/d), ST (≤2 h/d), and sleep (9–11 h/night for children aged 5–13 y and 8–10 h/night for
Emily A. Hall, Dario Gonzalez and Rebecca M. Lopez
quality criteria of each tradition of the methods involved? Yes, both components are of high quality N/A N/A Yes, both components are of high quality N/A Clinical Bottom Line Strength of Recommendation Based on the quality of the person-oriented evidence available, 5 , 6 , 8 , 9 , 13 the recommendation
Ellen Freiberger, Elisabeth Rydwik, Astrid Chorus, Erwin Tak, Christophe Delecluse, Federico Schena, Nina Waaler, Bob Laventure and Nico van Meeteren
(see Appendix 1 ). The meeting resulted in a consensus (“Rome Statement”) with specific recommendations for increasing physical activity in older persons on macro- and microlevels through dissemination and implementation strategies addressing translational research (Figure 1 ). The Rome Statement is
Alba Reguant-Closa, Margaret M. Harris, Tim G. Lohman and Nanna L. Meyer
Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2015 ). These tools are designed for the user to help meet dietary recommendations. Tools have also been developed to target more specific populations, for example, children, older adults, or pregnant women ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner
minutes or more of moderate to vigorous cardiovascular activity and at least 2 days of muscle-strengthening activities per week. 2 , 3 Too few US adults meet PA recommendations; approximately 49% of adults meet recommendations for aerobic activity and only 21% meet strengthening activity recommendations
Marcelo Toledo-Vargas, Patricio Perez-Contreras, Damian Chandia-Poblete and Nicolas Aguilar-Farias
developed 24-hour movement guidelines (24-HMG) for children and adolescents. 1 , 12 These guidelines include the following recommendations for optimal health benefits in children aged 5–17 years: (1) accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day and incorporate vigorous PA and