The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that adding caffeine to postexercise carbohydrate (CHO) feedings improves subsequent high-intensity interval-running capacity compared with CHO alone. In a repeated-measures design, 6 men performed a glycogen-depleting exercise protocol until volitional exhaustion in the morning. Immediately after and at 1, 2, and 3 hr postexercise, participants consumed 1.2 g/kg body mass CHO of a 15% CHO solution, a similar CHO solution but with addition of 8 mg/kg body mass of caffeine (CHO+CAFF), or an equivalent volume of flavored water only (WAT). After the 4-hr recovery period, participants performed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) to volitional exhaustion as a measure of high-intensity interval-running capacity. Average blood glucose values during the 4-hr recovery period were higher in the CHO conditions (p < .005) than in the WAT trial (4.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L), although there was no difference (p = .46) between CHO (6.2 ± 0.8 mmol/L) and CHO+CAFF (6.7 ± 1.0 mmol/L). Exercise capacity during the LIST was significantly longer in the CHO+CAFF trial (48 ± 15 min) than in the CHO (32 ± 15 min, p = .04) and WAT conditions (19 ± 6 min, p = .001). All 6 participants improved performance in CHO+CAFF compared with CHO (95% CI for mean difference = 1–32 min). The study provides novel data by demonstrating that adding caffeine to postexercise CHO feeding improves subsequent high-intensity interval-running capacity, a finding that may be related to higher rates of postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis previously observed under similar feeding conditions.
Conor Taylor, Daniel Higham, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton
Ricardo J.S. Costa, Vera Camões-Costa, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, David Dixon, Isabella Russo and Zoya Huschtscha
immunity, potentially leaving the individual open to opportunistic pathogenic agents and suboptimal recovery processes ( Russo et al., 2019 ; Walsh, 2018 ). Furthermore, neutrophil chemotaxis, phagocytic ability, pathogenic termination, and/or tissue debris demolition functions (e
Fred Brouns, Mikael Fogelholm, Gerrit van Hall, Anton Wagenmakers and Wim H.M. Saris
This study tested the hypothesis that a 3-week oral lactate supplementation affects postexercise blood lactate disappearance in untrained male subjects. Fifteen men were randomly assigned to either a lactate supplementation (n = 8) or a placebo (n = 7) treatment. During the treatment period they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre-and posttreatment. Peak lactate values for placebo (PL) or lactate (L) treatment groups during different tests were as follows: Test 1 PL, 13.49 ± 3.71; L, 13.70 ± 1.90; Test 2 PL, 12.64 ± 2.32; L, 12.00 ± 2.23; Test 3 PL, 12.29 ± 2.92; L, 11.35 ± 1.38 and were reached 3 min postexercise. The decrease in blood lactate during the long (30- to 45-min) recovery periods amounted to @ 10 mmol/L. Blood lactate changes were highly reproducible. However, a 3-week oral lactate supplementation did not result in differences in lactate disappearance. This study does not support the hypothesis that regular oral lactate intake at rest enhances the removal of lactate during and following exercise, that is, not with the given lactate load and supplementation period.
Amy Warren, Erin J. Howden, Andrew D. Williams, James W. Fell and Nathan A. Johnson
Postexercise fat oxidation may be important for exercise prescription aimed at optimizing fat loss. The authors examined the effects of exercise intensity, duration, and modality on postexercise oxygen consumption (VO2) and substrate selection/respiratory-exchange ratio (RER) in healthy individuals. Three experiments (n = 7 for each) compared (a) short- (SD) vs. long-duration (LD) ergometer cycling exercise (30 min vs. 90 min) matched for intensity, (b) low- (LI) vs. high-intensity (HI) cycling (50% vs. 85% of VO2max) matched for energy expenditure, and (c) continuous (CON) vs. interval (INT) cycling matched for energy expenditure and mean intensity. All experiments were administered by crossover design. Altering exercise duration did not affect postexercise VO2 or RER kinetics (p > .05). However, RER was lower and fat oxidation was higher during the postexercise period in LD vs. SD (p < .05). HI vs. LI resulted in a significant increase in total postexercise energy expenditure and fat oxidation (p < .01). Altering exercise modality (CON vs. INT) did not affect postexercise VO2, RER, or fat oxidation (p > .05). These results demonstrate that postexercise energy expenditure and fat oxidation can be augmented by increasing exercise intensity, but these benefits cannot be exploited by undertaking interval exercise (1:2-min work:recovery ratio) when total energy expenditure, duration, and mean intensity remain unchanged. In spite of the apparent benefit of these strategies, the amount of fat oxidized after exercise may be inconsequential compared with that oxidized during the exercise bout.
Robin T. Thorpe, Anthony J. Strudwick, Martin Buchheit, Greg Atkinson, Barry Drust and Warren Gregson
To quantify the relationship between daily training load and a range of potential measures of fatigue in elite soccer players during an in-season competitive phase (17 d).
Total high-intensity-running (THIR) distance, perceived ratings of wellness (fatigue, muscle soreness, sleep quality), countermovement-jump height (CMJ), postexercise heart-rate recovery (HRR), and heart-rate variability (Ln rMSSD) were analyzed during an in-season competitive period (17 d). General linear models were used to evaluate the influence of daily fluctuation in THIR distance on potential fatigue variables.
Fluctuations in fatigue (r = −.51, large, P < .001), Ln rMSSD (r = −.24, small, P = .04), and CMJ (r = .23, small, P = .04) were significantly correlated with fluctuations in THIR distance. Correlations between variability in muscle soreness, sleep quality, and HRR and THIR distance were negligible and not statistically significant.
Perceived ratings of fatigue and Ln rMSSD were sensitive to daily fluctuations in THIR distance in a sample of elite soccer players. Therefore, these particular markers show promise as simple, noninvasive assessments of fatigue status in elite soccer players during a short in-season competitive phase.
William McGarvey, Richard Jones and Stewart Petersen
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of interval (INT) and continuous (CON) cycle exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Twelve males first completed a graded exercise test for VO2max and then the two exercise challenges in random order on separate days approximately 1 wk apart. The INT challenge consisted of seven 2 min work intervals at 90% VO2max, each followed by 3 min of relief at 30% VO2max. The CON exercise consisted of 30 to 32 min of continuous cycling at 65% VO2max. Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were measured for 30 min before, during, and for 2 h post-exercise. Three methods were used to analyze post-exercise oxygen consumption and all produced similar results. There were no significant differences in either the magnitude or duration of EPOC between the CON and INT protocols. HR, however, was higher (P < 0.05) while respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was lower (P < 0.05) following INT. These results indicate that when total work was similar, the magnitude and duration of EPOC were similar following CON or INT exercise. The differences in HR and RER during recovery suggest differential physiological responses to the exercise challenges.
Psychological skills such as goal setting, imagery, relaxation and self-talk have been used in performance enhancement, emotional regulation, and increasing one’s confidence and/or motivation in sport. These skills can also be applied with athletes during recovery from injury in the rehabilitation setting or in preseason meetings for preventing injury. Research on psychological skill use with athletes has shown that such skills have helped reduce negative psychological outcomes, improve coping skills, and reduce reinjury anxiety (Evans & Hardy, 2002; Johnson, 2000; Mankad & Gordon, 2010). Although research has been limited in psychological skill implementation with injured athletes, these skills can be used when working with injured athletes or in the prevention of injury. Injured athletes may use psychological skills such as setting realistic goals in coming back from injury, imagery to facilitate rehabilitation, and relaxation techniques to deal with pain management. In prevention of injury, the focus is on factors that put an individual at-risk for injury. Thus, teaching strategies of goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, and attention/focus can be instrumental in preparing athletes for a healthy season.
Jay R. Ebert, Anne Smith, Peter K. Edwards and Timothy R. Ackland
Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) is an established technique for the repair of knee chondral defects. Despite the reported clinical improvement in knee pain and symptoms, little is known on the recovery of knee strength and its return to an appropriate level compared with the unaffected limb.
To investigate the progression of isokinetic knee strength and limb symmetry after MACI.
Private functional rehabilitation facility.
58 patients treated with MACI for full-thickness cartilage defects to the femoral condyles.
MACI and a standardized rehabilitation protocol.
Main Outcome Measures:
Preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 5 y postsurgery, patients underwent a 3-repetition-maximum straight-leg raise test, as well as assessment of isokinetic knee-flexor and -extensor torque and hamstring:quadriceps (H:Q) ratios. Correlation analysis investigated the association between strength and pain, demographics, defect, and surgery characteristics. Linear-regression analysis estimated differences in strength measures between the operated and nonoperated limbs, as well as Limb Symmetry Indexes (LSI) over time.
Peak knee-extension torque improved significantly over time for both limbs but was significantly lower on the operated limb preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 5 y. Mean LSIs of 77.0%, 83.0%, and 86.5% were observed at 1, 2, and 5 y, respectively, while 53.4–72.4% of patients demonstrated an LSI ≤ 90% across the postoperative timeline. Peak knee-flexion torque was significantly lower on the operated limb preoperatively and at 1 year. H:Q ratios were significantly higher on the operated limb at all time points.
While peak knee-flexion and hip-flexor strength were within normal limits, the majority of patients in this study still demonstrated an LSI for peak knee-extensor strength ≤ 90%, even at 5 y. It is unknown how this prolonged knee-extensor deficit may affect long-term graft outcome and risk of reinjury after return to activity.
Chelsea L. Oxendale, Craig Twist, Matthew Daniels and Jamie Highton
While exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) after rugby league match play has been well documented, the specific match actions that contribute to EIMD are unclear. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the positional demands of elite rugby league matches and examine their relationship with subsequent EIMD.
Twenty-eight performances (from 17 participants) were captured using 10-Hz global positioning systems over 4 competitive matches. Upper- and lower-body neuromuscular fatigue, creatine kinase (CK), and perceived muscle soreness were assessed 24 h before and at 12, 36, and 60 h after matches.
High-intensity running was moderately higher in backs (6.6 ± 2.6 m/min) than in forwards (5.1 ± 1.6 m/min), whereas total collisions were moderately lower (31.1 ± 13.1 vs 54.1 ± 37.0). Duration (r = .90, CI: .77–.96) and total (r = .86, CI: .70–.95) and high-intensity distance covered (r = .76, CI: .51–.91) were associated (P < .05) with increased CK concentration postmatch. Total collisions and repeated high-intensity efforts were associated (P < .05) with large decrements in upper-body neuromuscular performance (r = –.48, CI: –.74 to .02; r = –.49, CI: –.77 to .05, respectively), muscle soreness (r = –.68, CI: –.87 to –.10, r = –.66, CI: –.89 to .21, respectively), and CK concentration (r = .67, CI: .42–.85; r = .73, CI: .51–.87, respectively). All EIMD markers returned to baseline within 60 h.
Match duration, high-intensity running, and collisions were associated with variations in EIMD markers, suggesting that recovery is dependent on individual match demands.
Michael J. Saunders, Rebecca W. Moore, Arie K. Kies, Nicholas D. Luden and Casey A. Pratt
This study examined whether a carbohydrate + casein hydrolysate (CHO+ProH) beverage improved time-trial performance vs. a CHO beverage delivering ~60 g CHO/hr. Markers of muscle disruption and recovery were also assessed. Thirteen male cyclists (VO2peak = 60.8 ± 1.6 ml · kg−1 · min−1) completed 2 computer-simulated 60-km time trials consisting of 3 laps of a 20-km course concluding with a 5-km climb (~5% grade). Participants consumed 200 ml of CHO (6%) or CHO+ProH beverage (6% + 1.8% protein hydrolysate) every 5 km and 500 ml of beverage immediately postexercise. Beverage treatments were administered using a randomly counterbalanced, double-blind design. Plasma creatine phosphokinase (CK) and muscle-soreness ratings were assessed immediately before and 24 hr after cycling. Mean 60-km times were 134.4 ± 4.6 and 135.0 ± 4.0 min for CHO+ProH and CHO beverages, respectively. All time differences between treatments occurred during the final lap, with protein hydrolysate ingestion explaining a significant (p < .05) proportion of betweentrials differences over the final 20 km (44.3 ± 1.6, 45.0 ± 1.6 min) and final 5 km (16.5 ± 0.6, 16.9 ± 0.6 min). Plasma CK levels and muscle-soreness ratings increased significantly after the CHO trial (161 ± 53, 399 ± 175 U/L; 15.8 ± 5.1, 37.6 ± 5.7 mm) but not the CHO+ProH trial (115 ± 21, 262 ± 88 U/L; 20.9 ± 5.3, 32.2 ± 7.1 mm). Late-exercise time-trial performance was enhanced with CHO+ProH beverage ingestion compared with a beverage containing CHO provided at maximal exogenous oxidation rates during exercise. CHO+ProH ingestion also prevented increases in plasma CK and muscle soreness after exercise.