proximal aorta. 4 , 5 This case study reports on a rare event in which an athlete with BAV disease remained undiagnosed until his college freshman year. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends review of a careful personal and family history as well as a focused physical examination prior to
Anthony Rossi, Tina Claiborne and Jamie Fetter
Allana G.W. LeBlanc and Ian Janssen
We examined differences between objective (accelerometer) and subjective (self-report) measures of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in youth. Participants included 2761 youth aged 12–19 years. Within each sex and race group, objective and self-reported measures of MVPA were poorly correlated (R 2 = .01–.10). Self-reported MVPA values were higher than objective values (median: 42.4 vs. 15.0 min/d). 65.4% of participants over-reported their MVPA by 35 min/d. The difference between self-reported and objective measures was not influenced by sex, age, or race. There was, however, a systematic difference such that inactive participants over-reported their MVPA to the greatest extent.
Yannis Manios, Anthony Kafatos and George Markakis
Heart rate monitoring was used to evaluate the validity and reliability of 2 proxy report measures in assessing moderate to vigorous physical activity (MYPA) in 39 six-year-old children. Significant positive correlations were found between the proxy measures and corresponding heart rate data for school hours and leisure time, respectively (teacher reports, r = .58, p < .001; parent reports, r = .71 to .81, p < .001), but these decreased when each proxy measure was compared with heart rate data collated over a 3-day period (teacher reports, r = .40, p = .01; parent reports, r = .68, p < .001). Repeating the measurements gave a positive test-retest reliability coefficient of r = .84 (p < .001) and r = .64 (p < .001) for teacher and parent reports, respectively. The results indicate that both proxy reports can be useful tools in assessing MVPA in young children but that leisure-time activity reports provide a better basis for extrapolation in assessing weekly MVPA.
Satya S. Jonnalagadda, Dan Benardot and Marian N. Dill
This study examines the degree of under-reporting of energy intake by elite, female gymnasts, and the impact this predicted under-reporting has on associated macro and micro nutrient intake. Twenty-eight female U.S. national team artistic gymnasts participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records, and the degree of under-reporting was predicted from the ratio of reported energy intake (EI) to predicted basal metabolic rate (BMRestd), using the standards described by Goldberg et al. (10). Sixty-one percent of the subjects had an EI/BMRestd ratio of < 1.44, and were classified as under-reporters. The under-reporters had higher BMIs and percent body fat, and lower reported total energy intakes than the adequate energy reporters. Additionally, under-reporting of energy intake had a significant impact on reported micro nutrient intake. The under-reporting of energy intake seen in these subjects has an impact on the reported intake of macro and micro nutrients that can influence the interpretation of the nutritional status of these athletes and the strategy for nutrition intervention. Therefore, when assessing dietary intakes of elite gymnasts, some means of determining the accuracy of the reported energy and nutrient intake should be employed to more accurately identify the true nutritional problems experienced by these elite athletes.
Greet Cardon, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Dirk De Clercq, Renaat Philippaerts, Stefanie Verstraete and Elisatbeth Geldhof
The present study investigates whether physical fitness, physical activity, and determinants of physical activity are associated with reports of back and neck pain in children. A total of 749 children (mean age: 9.7 years ± 0.7) were evaluated, using a standardized physical fitness test (Eurofit), a physical activity questionnaire, and a pain prevalence questionnaire. Results indicate that physical fitness levels are not associated with back pain reports, but pain reports are lower in girls reporting higher frequencies of moderate physical activity and better estimates for attitude toward physical activity. Therefore, in girls, increased levels of physical activity might contribute to better back health.
Marieke J.G. van Heuvelen, Gertrudis I.J.M. Kempen, Johan Ormel and Mathieu H.G. de Greef
To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests included endurance, flexibility, strength, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time. The self-report evaluation assessed selected individual subcomponents of fitness and used both peers and absolute standards as reference. The results showed that compared to performance-based tests, the self-report items were more strongly interrelated and they less effectively evaluated the different subdomains of physical fitness. Corresponding performance-based tests and self-report items were weakly to moderately associated. All self-report items were related most strongly with the performance-based endurance test. Apparently. older people tend to estimate overall fitness, in which endurance plays an important part, rather than individual subcomponents of Illness. Therefore, the self-report measures have limited validity as predictors of performance-based physical fitness.
María del Pilar Rodriguez Martinez, Karla I. Galaviz, Edtna Jauregui Ulloa, Ines Gonzalez-Casanova and Juan Ricardo Lopez y Taylor
The Mexican Report Card on Physical Activity in children and youth was first developed in 2012 as a tool aimed at informing policy and practice. The objective of this paper is to update the Report Card to reflect the current situation in Mexico.
A literature search was conducted in Spanish and English using major databases, and complemented with government documents and national health surveys. Information on the 9 indicators outlined in the Global Matrix of Report Card Grades was extracted. Experts from Mexico and Canada met to discuss and assign a grade on each indicator.
The physical activity indicator was assigned a C+, which was higher than in the previous report card. Sedentary behavior was assigned a D, which was lower than the previous report card. Organized Sports and Active Transportation, which were not graded in the previous report card, were assigned grades of D and B-, respectively. Government and Built Environment were assigned grades of C and F, respectively. Family and Peers and Active Play were not graded (INC).
Levels of PA and sedentary behaviors among Mexican children and youth were below the respective recommended references. The implementation and effectiveness of current government strategies need to be determined. The Mexican Report Card is a promising knowledge translation tool that can serve to inform policies and programs related to physical activity.
Gershon Tenenbaum, Michael Lloyd, Grace Pretty and Yuri L. Hanin
A study was carried out to examine the ability of equestrians to accurately report precompetition emotions and thoughts across varying time delays (3,7, and 14 days) after competition. Forty male and female dressage riders were randomly divided into two equal groups: participants who watched their videotaped precompetition routine before responding to the items, and participants who visualized the precompetition routine without any external aid. Each rider completed several questionnaires which measured emotions, items related to horses, and an open-ended question on thoughts and emotions at that moment. After a delay of 3,7, and 14 days, the riders were asked to respond to the same questions after imagining themselves preparing for the competition. Repeated-measures MANOVA indicate that though some decrease in emotional intensity was noted for some emotions in the retrospective report, the stability of reporting precompetition emotions was very high in all delay periods. The horse related items were reported particularly accurately. Watching the videotape did not improve the accuracy of the report. Content analysis, however, indicated that when measurement consisted of free report, many emotions and thoughts were added or omitted in the delayed modes. Ericsson and Simon’s (1980, 1984) verbal reports and protocol analysis conceptualization is used to elaborate upon these results.
Mark S. Tremblay, Joel D. Barnes and Jennifer Cowie Bonne
For 20 years Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) has worked to inspire the country to engage all children and youth in physical activity (PA). The primary vehicle to achieve this is the AHKC Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, which has been released annually since 2005. Using 10 years of experience with this knowledge translation and synthesis mechanism, this paper aggregates and consolidates diverse evidence demonstrating the impact of the Report Card and related knowledge translation activities. Over the years many evaluations, consultations, assessments, and surveys have helped inform changes in the Report Card to improve its impact. Guided by a logic model, the various assessments have traversed areas related to distribution and reach, meeting stakeholder needs, use of the Report Card, its influence on policy, and advancing the mission of AHKC. In the past 10 years, the Report Card has achieved > 1 billion media impressions, distributed > 120,000 printed copies and > 200,000 electronic copies, and benefited from a collective ad value > $10 million. The Report Card has been replicated in 14 countries, 2 provinces, 1 state and 1 city. AHKC has received consistent positive feedback from stakeholders and endusers, who reported that the Report Card has been used for public awareness/education campaigns and advocacy strategies, to strengthen partnerships, to inform research and program design, and to advance and adjust policies and strategies. Collectively, the evidence suggests that the Report Card has been successful at powering the movement to get kids moving, and in achieving demonstrable success on immediate and intermediate outcomes, although the long-term goal of improving the PA of Canadian children and youth remains to be realized.