Changes in the political and economic environment of sports organizations are taking place, especially at the levels of state and local government. These changes will impact negatively the nature of the sport-community relationship. The manner in which sports administrators respond to these changes may ultimately determine the viability of many sports organizations. This article suggests that sports administrators must be sensitive to these changes and must adjust their views of the sport-community relationship and their negotiating strategies accordingly. This especially will be important for sports administrators representing organizations that do not have major league status and, therefore, lack power at the negotiating table.
Arthur T. Johnson
Eldon E. Snyder and Dean A. Purdy
This study substantiates the notion of a home advantage for the sport of basketball. The findings indicate that home teams win 66% of their games and this advantage is as important for game outcomes as team quality. However, the advantage varies according to the quality of home and visiting teams. The paper provides a review of the Durkheimian perspective, which views the home team as a representative of the home collectivity that draws support from its fans. Additionally, the home advantage may be seen as an expression of Goffman, whereby the players are highly motivated to respond in a manner that will maintain their proper demeanor and self-esteem.
Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin
This study employed the concept of hegemonic masculinity as an interpretive framework to explore NCAA Division I athletic administrator perceptions regarding the professional accomplishments of male and female athletic directors. Using photo elicitation methodology, athletic administrators (e.g., athletic directors, academic advisors/counselors for athletes, and coaches) responded to a photograph of and vignette about either a male or female athletic director. This study found that while some athletic administrators were supportive of the achievements of both male and female athletic directors, some subscribed to hegemonic masculinity, gendered stereotypes, and homologous reproduction. These findings have implications for stakeholders in the affairs of athletics who are committed to creating more equitable athletic environments.
David Bellar, Todd A. Gilson and James C. Hannon
Higher education is in a period of flux. For many public institutions, state support has decreased over the past decade, resulting in the notion of doing more with less. Using an inverted triangle approach, this article examines how both institutions and departments are coping with their present reality using innovative and entrepreneurial ideas. First, the story of how public institutions in the state of Illinois are responding to decreased state appropriations and declining K–12 enrollments is discussed. Second, a rich example of how one institution completed the strategic planning process—from conceptualization to implementation—is shared. Finally, one department’s multifaceted plan to handle declining state support is shared.
Janet E. Simon, Matthew Donahue and Carrie L. Docherty
Taping and bracing are commonly used to protect the ankle joint and prevent ankle sprains. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine ATs’ utilization of prophylactic support and (2) determine attitudes and behaviors toward the use of ankle taping and bracing. A survey was distributed electronically to 7,888 ATs. Over half of the responding ATs encouraged athletes to wear some form of ankle support. A majority of college ATs either encouraged or required athletes to use ankle taping, indicating the decision is derived from a complex integration of athlete preferences, the clinician’s internal evidence, and the best available external evidence.
Kathy Jeltma and E. William Vogler
An A-B-A-B time series design was used to determine the effects of an individual contingency system in decreasing inappropriate and disruptive behavior of behaviorally disordered students in a physical education setting. Nine students (ages 8-13 years) participated in a 4-week physical education program in which response cost procedures (loss of free time) were systematically administered to individuals who did not follow class rules. Results indicated that during treatment and replication of treatment, the on-task behavior of all students improved from 44.0% to 69.1% and 38.1% to 71.6%, respectively. Older students appeared more responsive to treatment than younger students. Individually, three of five younger students (mean age 9.4 years) and all four older students (mean age 12.2 years) responded favorably to treatment. The study demonstrates that an individual contingency can be an effective behavioral strategy in modifying disruptive behavior which normally prevents these students from participation in physical education. In addition, younger as well as older students benefit from the approach, but not all individuals within this group responded favorably.
Gershon Tenenbaum, Michael Lloyd, Grace Pretty and Yuri L. Hanin
A study was carried out to examine the ability of equestrians to accurately report precompetition emotions and thoughts across varying time delays (3,7, and 14 days) after competition. Forty male and female dressage riders were randomly divided into two equal groups: participants who watched their videotaped precompetition routine before responding to the items, and participants who visualized the precompetition routine without any external aid. Each rider completed several questionnaires which measured emotions, items related to horses, and an open-ended question on thoughts and emotions at that moment. After a delay of 3,7, and 14 days, the riders were asked to respond to the same questions after imagining themselves preparing for the competition. Repeated-measures MANOVA indicate that though some decrease in emotional intensity was noted for some emotions in the retrospective report, the stability of reporting precompetition emotions was very high in all delay periods. The horse related items were reported particularly accurately. Watching the videotape did not improve the accuracy of the report. Content analysis, however, indicated that when measurement consisted of free report, many emotions and thoughts were added or omitted in the delayed modes. Ericsson and Simon’s (1980, 1984) verbal reports and protocol analysis conceptualization is used to elaborate upon these results.
Whitney W. Marks, Tiesha R. Martin and Stacy Warner
This case addresses the events leading up to the cancellation of the 2012 New York City Marathon in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. The case highlights the importance of making fair and timely decisions. The case is assembled based on newspaper accounts of the circumstances that led to New York City’s Mayor Bloomberg declaring the 2012 marathon would be held and then two days later canceling the event. The facts that were available to Mayor Bloomberg are presented in such a way that students can consider and analyze what they would have done and when, and how this may or may not differ from what actually occurred. Most importantly, the case highlights the decision-making process that many sport and event managers will encounter in the field when a weather-related event occurs in the midst of a planned athletic event. Consequently, the case provides students with an opportunity to critically examine the following: 1) how a sport organization should respond to a crisis; 2) the impact of decision-making on various event stakeholders; 3) the ethics involved in decision-making; and 4) how sport and event managers should respond to public criticism. The case is intended for use in classes focused on event management, sport ethics, and public relations.
T. Adam Thrasher, Vivian W. Sin, Kei Masani, Albert H. Vette, B. Cathy Craven and Milos R. Popovic
Understanding how the human body responds to unexpected force perturbations during quiet sitting is important to the science of motor behavior and the design of neuroprostheses for sitting posture. In this study, the performance characteristics of the neck and trunk in healthy individuals were assessed by measuring the kinematic responses to sudden, unexpected force perturbations applied to the thorax. Perturbations were applied in eight horizontal directions. It was hypothesized that displacement of the trunk, settling time and steady-state error would increase when the perturbation direction was diagonal (i.e., anterior-lateral or posterior-lateral) due to the increased complexity of asymmetrical muscle responses. Perturbation forces were applied manually. The neck and trunk responded in a synchronized manner in which all joints achieved peak displacement simultaneously then returned directly to equilibrium. Displacement in the direction of perturbation and perpendicular to the direction of perturbation were both significantly greater in response to diagonal perturbations (p < .001). The center of mass returned to equilibrium in 3.64 ± 1.42 s after the onset of perturbation. Our results suggest that the trunk sometimes behaves like an underdamped oscillator and is not controlled by simple stiffness when subjected to loads of approximately 200 N. The results of this study are intended to be used to develop a neuroprosthesis for artificial control of trunk stability in individuals with spinal cord injury.
Christian Cook, C. Martyn Beaven, Liam P. Kilduff and Scott Drawer
This study aimed to determine whether caffeine ingestion would increase the workload voluntarily chosen by athletes in a limited-sleep state.
In a double-blind, crossover study, 16 professional rugby players ingested either a placebo or 4 mg/kg caffeine 1 hr before exercise. Athletes classified themselves into nondeprived (8 hr+) or sleep-deprived states (6 hr or less). Exercise comprised 4 sets of bench press, squats, and bent rows at 85% 1-repetition maximum. Athletes were asked to perform as many repetitions on each set as possible without failure. Saliva was collected before administration of placebo or caffeine and again before and immediately after exercise and assayed for testosterone and cortisol.
Sleep deprivation produced a very large decrease in total load (p = 1.98 × 10−7). Caffeine ingestion in the nondeprived state resulted in a moderate increase in total load, with a larger effect in the sleep-deprived state, resulting in total load similar to those observed in the nondeprived placebo condition. Eight of the 16 athletes were identified as caffeine responders. Baseline testosterone was higher (p < .05) and cortisol trended lower in non-sleep-deprived athletes. Changes in hormones from predose to preexercise correlated to individual workload responses to caffeine. Testosterone response to exercise increased with caffeine compared with placebo, as did cortisol response.
Caffeine increased voluntary workload in professional athletes, even more so under conditions of self-reported limited sleep. Caffeine may prove worthwhile when athletes are tired, especially in those identified as responders.