This study assessed a range of activities reported by older women in Australia. Women between 75 and 81 years of age (N = 3,955) from the older cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health responded to a request in a self-report survey for additional information concerning their health. Of these 3,955 women, 509 reported taking part in a variety of activities. Qualitative analysis of responses identified 55 coded categories of activities that were subsequently classified into four major themes: physical activities, creative pursuits, lifestyle, and social interaction. The data show that these older women are taking part in a wide range of activities.
Lynette Adamson and Glennys Parker
The daily routine of local sports broadcasters is as busy as it has ever been, as they are expected to anchor the evening sportscast, write stories, film games, and update the station Web site. Twitter has added yet another duty to their job, but they do not seem to mind this assignment. In a survey of local sports broadcasters throughout the U.S., over 90% of those who responded to the survey said they either “liked” or “loved” Twitter. In addition, more than 80% of respondents said that they did not consider using Twitter at work to be a burden. Implications regarding extra-role behaviors and work engagement are discussed.
Galen Trail and Packianathan Chelladurai
This study investigated the extent to which two stakeholder groups of intercollegiate athletics (faculty and students) differed in the importance they attached to 10 selected goals and their approval of 11 selected processes within intercollegiate athletics. A total of 652 respondents (341 faculty, 311 students, 337 men, 310 women) from a large midwestern university responded to a questionnaire developed for this study. Results showed that subgroups, defined by faculty-student status, and gender differed significantly in most instances. These differences and the similarities in the rank ordering of the goals and processes are discussed.
Janet E. Simon, Matthew Donahue and Carrie L. Docherty
Taping and bracing are commonly used to protect the ankle joint and prevent ankle sprains. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine ATs’ utilization of prophylactic support and (2) determine attitudes and behaviors toward the use of ankle taping and bracing. A survey was distributed electronically to 7,888 ATs. Over half of the responding ATs encouraged athletes to wear some form of ankle support. A majority of college ATs either encouraged or required athletes to use ankle taping, indicating the decision is derived from a complex integration of athlete preferences, the clinician’s internal evidence, and the best available external evidence.
Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers and Margaret E. Whitehead
Physical literacy has been described as a “longed for concept” and has in turn gained much interest worldwide. This interest has also given rise for calls for physical literacy to be operationalized, providing clarity and guidance on developing physical literacy informed practice. Operationalizing physical literacy is crucial in moving the concept forward by providing “substance to the claims made by (physical literacy) advocates.” This special issue aims to respond to calls for research to “unpack” physical literacy across a number of areas in pursuit of operationalizing physical literacy in practice. Nine articles are included within this special issue.
Arthur T. Johnson
Changes in the political and economic environment of sports organizations are taking place, especially at the levels of state and local government. These changes will impact negatively the nature of the sport-community relationship. The manner in which sports administrators respond to these changes may ultimately determine the viability of many sports organizations. This article suggests that sports administrators must be sensitive to these changes and must adjust their views of the sport-community relationship and their negotiating strategies accordingly. This especially will be important for sports administrators representing organizations that do not have major league status and, therefore, lack power at the negotiating table.
Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin
This study employed the concept of hegemonic masculinity as an interpretive framework to explore NCAA Division I athletic administrator perceptions regarding the professional accomplishments of male and female athletic directors. Using photo elicitation methodology, athletic administrators (e.g., athletic directors, academic advisors/counselors for athletes, and coaches) responded to a photograph of and vignette about either a male or female athletic director. This study found that while some athletic administrators were supportive of the achievements of both male and female athletic directors, some subscribed to hegemonic masculinity, gendered stereotypes, and homologous reproduction. These findings have implications for stakeholders in the affairs of athletics who are committed to creating more equitable athletic environments.
Whitney W. Marks, Tiesha R. Martin and Stacy Warner
This case addresses the events leading up to the cancellation of the 2012 New York City Marathon in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. The case highlights the importance of making fair and timely decisions. The case is assembled based on newspaper accounts of the circumstances that led to New York City’s Mayor Bloomberg declaring the 2012 marathon would be held and then two days later canceling the event. The facts that were available to Mayor Bloomberg are presented in such a way that students can consider and analyze what they would have done and when, and how this may or may not differ from what actually occurred. Most importantly, the case highlights the decision-making process that many sport and event managers will encounter in the field when a weather-related event occurs in the midst of a planned athletic event. Consequently, the case provides students with an opportunity to critically examine the following: 1) how a sport organization should respond to a crisis; 2) the impact of decision-making on various event stakeholders; 3) the ethics involved in decision-making; and 4) how sport and event managers should respond to public criticism. The case is intended for use in classes focused on event management, sport ethics, and public relations.
Gershon Tenenbaum, Michael Lloyd, Grace Pretty and Yuri L. Hanin
A study was carried out to examine the ability of equestrians to accurately report precompetition emotions and thoughts across varying time delays (3,7, and 14 days) after competition. Forty male and female dressage riders were randomly divided into two equal groups: participants who watched their videotaped precompetition routine before responding to the items, and participants who visualized the precompetition routine without any external aid. Each rider completed several questionnaires which measured emotions, items related to horses, and an open-ended question on thoughts and emotions at that moment. After a delay of 3,7, and 14 days, the riders were asked to respond to the same questions after imagining themselves preparing for the competition. Repeated-measures MANOVA indicate that though some decrease in emotional intensity was noted for some emotions in the retrospective report, the stability of reporting precompetition emotions was very high in all delay periods. The horse related items were reported particularly accurately. Watching the videotape did not improve the accuracy of the report. Content analysis, however, indicated that when measurement consisted of free report, many emotions and thoughts were added or omitted in the delayed modes. Ericsson and Simon’s (1980, 1984) verbal reports and protocol analysis conceptualization is used to elaborate upon these results.
Kathy Jeltma and E. William Vogler
An A-B-A-B time series design was used to determine the effects of an individual contingency system in decreasing inappropriate and disruptive behavior of behaviorally disordered students in a physical education setting. Nine students (ages 8-13 years) participated in a 4-week physical education program in which response cost procedures (loss of free time) were systematically administered to individuals who did not follow class rules. Results indicated that during treatment and replication of treatment, the on-task behavior of all students improved from 44.0% to 69.1% and 38.1% to 71.6%, respectively. Older students appeared more responsive to treatment than younger students. Individually, three of five younger students (mean age 9.4 years) and all four older students (mean age 12.2 years) responded favorably to treatment. The study demonstrates that an individual contingency can be an effective behavioral strategy in modifying disruptive behavior which normally prevents these students from participation in physical education. In addition, younger as well as older students benefit from the approach, but not all individuals within this group responded favorably.