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Kathleen Van Royen, Roosmarijn Verstraeten, Susana Andrade, Angélica Ochoa-Avilés, Silvana Donoso, Lea Maes and Patrick Kolsteren

Background:

Physical inactivity levels are increasingly prevalent among Ecuadorian adolescents. School-based interventions can be potentially effective in promoting physical activity but must be informed by cultural-specific factors.

Methods:

Twelve focus groups were carried out with adolescents (n = 80) in rural and urban Ecuador to identify factors influencing physical activity. In addition, 4 focus group discussions with parents (n = 32) and 4 with school staff (n = 32) were conducted. Individual and environmental factors were questioned using the ‘Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy’ model and the socioecological model as theoretical frameworks.

Results:

Factors influencing physical activity varied between groups. In the rural area farming and norms for girls impeded leisure-time physical activity, whereas urban groups emphasized traffic and crime concerns. Groups from a low socioeconomic status more frequently mentioned a fear of injuries and financial constraints. Several factors were common for all groups including preferences for sedentary activities, poor knowledge, time constraints and laziness, as well as a lack of opportunities at home and school, unsupportive parental rules and lack of role models.

Conclusion:

A conceptual framework including the identified factors emerged to inform the design of a cultural-sensitive school-based intervention to improve physical activity among Ecuadorian adolescents. Future interventions should be tailored to each setting.

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Carlos J. Crespo, Mario R. Garcia-Palmieri, Ellen Smit, I-Min Lee, Daniel McGee, Paola Muti, Nayda R. Figueroa Valle, Farah A. Ramirez-Marrero, Jo L. Freudenheim and Paul Sorlie

Studies on the association between physical activity and fatal prostate cancer have produced inconclusive results. The Puerto Rico Heart Health Program was a cohort study of a randomly selected sample of 9824 men age 35 to 79 years at baseline who were followed for mortality until 2002. Multiple examinations collected information on lifestyle, diet, body composition, exercise, urban-rural residence, and smoking habits. Physical activity status was measured using the Framingham Physical Activity Index, an assessment of occupational, leisure-time, and other physical activities measured as usual activity over the course of a 24-hour day. Physical activity was strati-fed into quartiles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of physical activity with prostate cancer mortality. Other covariates included age, education, urban-rural residence, smoking, and body mass index. Compared with the lowest level of physical activity (Q1), the risk of prostate cancer mortality was OR = 0.99 (95% CI = 0.64–1.55) for Q2, OR = 1.34 (95% CI = 0.88–2.05) for Q3, and OR = 1.19 (95% CI = 0.75–1.90) for Q4. Further analyses by age group, overweight status, or vigorous physical activity also did not show a significant association between physical activity and prostate cancer mortality. Physical activity did not predict prostate cancer mortality in this group of Puerto Rican men.

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Michael Atkinson

‘Terrier work’ is an historical and deeply significant rural practice in the United Kingdom, in which small or medium size terriers are employed to track, capture and kill foxes in the larger context of an organized foxhunt. Between 2007-2009, I spent time following a small group of ‘terrier men’ and their dogs around the East Midlands countryside as part of an ethnographic project on the use of dogs in rural (mainly fox) hunting cultures. A small faction of these terrier men living in England and Wales participate in a quasi-legal hunting subculture. In this paper, and drawing heavily upon animal standpoint theory (Best, 2013), I shift analytic focus in human-nonhuman animal studies away from human constructions/ uses/ meanings of animals in animal ‘blood sports’ (Gillett & Gilbert, 2013), and consider a fox hunting case study from the positions and subjectivities of the animals involved. This reading calls sociologists of sport and physical culture to reconsider how human-animal sports, analyzed from marginalized or silenced standpoints, direct attention to the interplay between power, instincts, and desires involved when species interactively meet.

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Tan Zhang and Michael L. Silk

At present, and as China negotiates the instantiation of consumer capitalism, her urban spaces have experienced agonizing growth affecting housing, the internationalization of cities, interactions between government and developers, the development of rural land, migrant flows, and social stratification within the city. Focusing on Beijing, we locate the efforts to host major sporting events—especially the 1990 Asian Games and the 2008 Olympic Games—within the dynamics of the spatial reconfigurations in Beijing, a rapid reordering based on “capital space” (Harvey, 2001), gentrification, and the lifestyle practices of a burgeoning middle and upper class of Beijingers. In so doing, we offer a multidimensional account of the complex manner in which power, mobility, and transformation within a modernizing Beijing intersects with the discursive constitution of bodies, concluding with regard to new forms of social cleavages and inequalities that derive from embracing, however selectively, the logistics of the market in the framework set by the Chinese nation-state.

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Adam B. Evans and David Piggott

The accession of the ‘A8 states’ into the European Union initiated considerable migration into Western Europe. The impact upon local communities has seen significant attention, yet little research exists that focuses upon migrant experiences and identity specifically in sport. This study used a figurational framework to investigate the lived experiences of basketball among male Lithuanian migrants in the rural east of England. Semistructured interviews highlighted participants’ motivations to migrate, their acculturation experiences and the role that basketball played during their sojourn. Participants considered basketball a significant means for the expression of national identity and as a focus for their resistance to local racializing processes. Conversely, conflict with established local basketball communities and perceptions of marginalization among migrants were common, creating divisions in local basketball competitions.

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Luis Miguel Ruiz, Jose Luis Graupera, Juan Antonio Moreno and Isabel Rico

The purpose of the current study was to explore social interaction preferences for learning in Physical Education (PE) among Spanish secondary students. The sample consists of 6,654 students (3,500 girls and 3,154 boys, aged 12–17 years) from public and private urban and rural schools in two communities in Spain. All participants completed the Graupera/Ruiz Scale of Social Interaction Preferences in PE Learning (GR–SIPPEL) which explores four learning preference dimensions: cooperation, competition, affiliation, and individualism. Results indicated that the ordinal profile of students’ preferences in PE classes was: cooperative (very high preference), competitive and affiliate (high-moderate preference), and individualistic (moderate-low preference). Gender differences emerged: girls were less competitive and individualistic than boys, and slightly more cooperative and affiliate. Weak grade level differences were also observed.

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Hans van der Mars

Audiocueing by way of a microcassette recorder was used to change a female student teacher’s (S1) use of verbal praise of students’ overall class behavior. A second student teacher’s (S2) behavior teaching in the same setting was used as concurrent baseline measure. Both subjects taught K-3 classes at a rural elementary school. An ABAB reversal design was used to determine the relationship between the intervention and dependent variables. Results showed that when audiocues were introduced, verbal praise rate increased significantly. Upon removal of the audiocues, the rate of verbal praise decreased gradually. Percentage of specific verbal praise also increased upon presentation of audiocues. Experimental significance found through visual inspection of graphic data was supported statistically by f-test results. Findings of the exit interview with S1 are included. Suggestions for further research are provided.

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Ying Sun, Jing An, Xi Wang, Ping Zu and Fang-Biao Tao

Background:

The study aims to understand the possible gender difference in the associations between physical activity and depressive symptoms during pubertal transition.

Methods:

Participants were 30,399 children and adolescents of Han ethnicity from urban and rural areas in 8 cities in China. Physical activity (PA) and depressive symptom was assessed by adapted Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Children Depression Inventory (CDI), respectively. Pubertal development was assessed by trained physicians.

Results:

In China, over 30% boys and 40% girls reported having no vigorous PA (VPA) or moderate PA (MPA) in the past week. In girls, participating in VPA 1 to 2 days/week showed protective effect for depressive symptoms; whereas in boys, participating in MPA 1 to 2 days/week showed protective effect for depressive symptoms at and after genital stage III (G3).

Conclusions:

Moderate frequency (1 to 2 days/week) in PA undertaken might be encouraged to prevent depressive symptoms among adolescents.

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Michelle Y. Martin, M. Paige Powell, Claire Peel, Sha Zhu and Richard Allman

This study examined whether leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was associated with health-care utilization in a racially diverse sample of rural and urban older adults. Community-dwelling adults (N = 1,000, 75.32 ± 6.72 years old) self-reported participating in LTPA and their use of the health-care system (physician visits, number and length of hospitalizations, and emergency-room visits). After controlling for variables associated with health and health-care utilization, older adults who reported lower levels of LTPA also reported a greater number of nights in the hospital in the preceding year. There was no support, however, for a relationship between LTPA and the other indicators of health-care utilization. Our findings suggest that being physically active might translate to a quicker recovery for older adults who are hospitalized. Being physically active might not only have health benefits for older persons but also lead to lower health-care costs.

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Marc S. Mitchell, Catherine A. Gaul, Patti-Jean Naylor and Constadina Panagiotopoulos

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and objectively measured habitual moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in First Nations youth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 rural villages in northern British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-nine healthy youth (16 males and 23 females; age = 11.8yrs ± 2.2; range = 8.8–18.5yrs) participated. PA was measured with ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers. The homeostasis model assessment estimate of IR (HOMA-IR) was used to define IR. Duration of MVPA was inversely related to HOMA-IR (r=−.44, p < .01). From the regression model, 30 min of habitual MVPA corresponded to HOMA-IR levels that were 15% lower. In conclusion, these findings suggest that active First Nations youth have lower HOMA-IR values.