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Sophia Nimphius

suggested term gender/sex , because gender and sex have been considered nearly inseparable in neuropsychology and therefore it is difficult to purely assess biological sex differences that have implications for motor behavior. References 1. Kaiser A . Re-conceptualizing “sex” and “gender” in the human

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Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler and Øyvind Sandbakk

, rowers, and cross-country (XC) skiers, providing the opportunity to reanalyze human upper limits, historical trends, and sex differences. In this invited review, we define the current “world records” in physiological capacity: human upper limits of aerobic and anaerobic power. Unpublished observations

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Neil Armstrong and Jo Welsman

regression modeling (MLwiN version 3.02; Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK), adopting the multiplicative, allometric approach described by Nevill et al ( 30 ). Initial (baseline) models sought to investigate sex differences across the age range 10–18 years of age, with age

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Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller and E. Michael Loovis

whom combining all age groups for each subtest item. Sex × Subtest Items × Age Groups When considering the 95 comparisons (19 Subtest Items × 5 Age Groups), only four subtest items for one age group (8–10 years) demonstrated a sex difference with males performing significantly better than females (see

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Nick Dobbin, Cari Thorpe, Jamie Highton and Craig Twist

fatiguing exercises, which offers a possible explanation for the different fatigability in males and females. However, sex differences in muscle force generating capability after damaging exercise remain unclear, with either no difference between sexes 11 – 15 or greater losses for females compared with

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Tracey Covassin, Kyle M. Petit and Morgan Anderson

using validated age-appropriate neurocognitive assessments. Previous research has also examined sex differences with regard to neurocognitive impairments after SRC. Overall, the literature is inconsistent on whether there are sex differences in youth athletes under the age of 13 years. This could be due

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Liana M. Tennant, Erika Nelson-Wong, Joshua Kuest, Gabriel Lawrence, Kristen Levesque, David Owens, Jeremy Prisby, Sarah Spivey, Stephanie R. Albin, Kristen Jagger, Jeff M. Barrett, James D. Wong and Jack P. Callaghan

approximate midpoint (L3). As secondary objectives, we wanted to confirm whether lumped mechanical stiffness changes following clinical assessment, as well as to identify any possible sex differences in tissue stiffness. We hypothesized that clinical and lumped mechanical stiffness measures would be

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Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele

within school j for girls; (sex) ij is coded 0 for girls, and 1 for boys; and β 01j , β 11j , and β 21 j are sex difference in fitness knowledge test score, annual knowledge linear growth rate in school j , and possible second-order growth differentials, respectively. The Level 2 random factors

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. Sisson * Michael P. Anderson * 8 2014 11 11 6 6 1179 1179 1186 1186 10.1123/jpah.2012-0245 Sex Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Percent Body Fatness and Physical Activity Erin White * Jennifer D. Slane * Kelly L. Klump * S. Alexandra Burt * Jim Pivarnik * 8 2014 11 11 6

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-Report Measures of Sitting Time Stacy A. Clemes * Beverley M. David * Yi Zhao * Xu Han * Wendy Brown * 5 2012 9 9 4 4 533 533 539 539 10.1123/jpah.9.4.533 Sex Differences, Age, Arthritis, and Chronic Disease: Influence on Physical Activity Behaviors Simone A. Kaptein * Elizabeth M. Badley * 5 2012 9