As the field of sport psychology has evolved and become more focused on applied/practitioner issues, the need for interdisciplinary training has been noted. Little information exists, however, concerning the acceptability of sport psychology training in applied psychology programs. Thus, 41 counseling psychology programs and 41 exercise/sport science departments (matched pairs) were surveyed to determine their relative attitudes toward sport psychology research, training, and current professional issues. The exercise/sport science departments were found to offer more courses in sport psychology and to have more faculty and students interested in sport research. Over 70% of the counseling psychology programs, however, had students with sport psychology interests. In addition, the two academic areas reported equally high levels of acceptance concerning their graduate students pursuing sport psychology research and training. Mechanisms for promoting interdisciplinary training in sport psychology are discussed.
Trent A. Petrie and C. Edward Watkins Jr.
Paul Wylleman, Paul De Knop, Joke Delhoux and Yves Vanden Auweele
Academic background, consultation processes, and training and support were assessed with semistructured interviews among 18 sport psychology consultants (60% of total membership) of the Flemish Society of Sport Psychology. A total of 61% of consultants were trained as clinical psychologists, most with limited sport psychology background. Assessments revealed that interpersonal relationships skills and communication (63%) and fear of failure (55%) were the most common concerns, whereas stress management (54%), enhancement of relationship and communication skills (31%), and visualization and goal setting (31%) were used in interventions. Recommendations for enhancing the development of applied sport psychology in Flanders include specialization in sport psychology at the academic level, continued sport psychology consultation training, and a better coordination between sport psychology consultants and the world of sports.
Britton W. Brewer, Judy L. Van Raalte, Albert J. Petitpas, Alan D. Bachman and Robert A. Weinhold
To assess the way in which sport psychology is portrayed in the media, the content and tone of all articles (N = 574) from three national newspapers in the United States that mentioned sport psychology from 1985-1993 were examined. Although few articles were focused primarily on sport psychology, a wide variety of sports and professionals were identified in association with sport psychology. Interventions noted explicitly were predominantly cognitive-behavioral procedures. Performance enhancement was the primary purpose of sport psychology consultation described in the articles. The vast majority of articles were neutral in tone toward sport psychology, portraying the field in objective terms. The findings suggest that the mass media can be used to promote accurate perceptions of sport psychology to the public.
Emily A. Roper, Leslee A. Fisher and Craig A. Wrisberg
In 1995, Gill discussed women’s place in the history and development of sport psychology. However, no research to date has explored women’s experiences working in the field of sport psychology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of professional women’s career histories and experiences in sport psychology. The study was framed by qualitative research, and eight professional women working in the field of sport psychology were interviewed. Analysis of the data produced themes in the categories of (a) entrance into sport psychology, (b) women’s status in sport psychology, (c) qualified obstacles, (d) the feminist sport psychologist, and (e) supporting women in sport psychology. Differences between co-participants were also noted regarding the extent to which various themes were or were not a part of their experiences.
Michael J. Asken and Michael D. Goodling
This article describes the relationship and potential contribution of sport psychology to disabled athletic competition. It is suggested that sports for disabled individuals is an area that has been essentially neglected by sport psychology research and intervention, although appropriate and needed applications do exist. Evidence for this neglect as well as examples of beneficial applications are provided. Recommendations are given for approaches to integrate sport psychology knowledge and techniques into the area of sports for disabled athletes.
Courtland C. Lee and Robert J. Rotella
This article examines important concepts for effective sport psychology consulting with black student athletes. First, sport psychology consultants are urged to examine their own cultural background prior to working with black student athletes. Second, a discussion of black expressiveness is presented to provide sport psychology consultants with a knowledge base from which to operate in interactions with black student athletes. Third, relevant skills are presented for effective sport psychology consulting with black student athletes. These skills are derived from consulting with and doing research on black student athletes.
Alan S. Kornspan
Although most history of sport psychology literature provides information about Coleman Griffith, little is known about Griffith’s activities related to the discipline after 1940. Thus, the purpose of the present paper is to explain Griffith’s influence on the reinstitution of the Sport Psychology Laboratory at the University of Illinois in 1951. In addition, the work of the Sport Psychology Laboratory at the University of Illinois under the direction of Alfred W. Hubbard is documented. Specifically, this manuscript provides information about sport psychology at the University of Illinois from 1950 until 1970.
Xavier Sanchez, Philippe Godin and Fabrice De Zanet
The goal of this investigation was to gain insight into the status of applied sport psychology in Europe, using the French-speaking part of Belgium as a case study. In contrast to previous studies, which have only focused on official scientific membership lists, the present survey examined the delivery of sport psychology services independent of practitioners’ educational background, membership, level of certification, and/or the topics addressed within their practice. Results revealed that degree-holding psychologists and people without any credentials coexist. Practitioners highlighted the need for informing the world of sport about applied sport psychology, developing specific training programs in sport psychology, and certifying people working as sport psychologists. Similar research across Europe, considering any professional delivering sport psychology services, is necessary to develop a more comprehensive picture of the subject.
Mike Voight and John Callaghan
The purpose of this study is to provide information regarding the number of consulting positions offered by NCAA Division I universities. Questionnaires were administered to 115 NCAA Division I universities. An 84% return rate was achieved, totaling 96 universities. It was determined that 51 (53%) of the university athletic departments in the sample used some form of sport psychology consulting, whereas 45 (47%) departments reportedly did not use the services of a sport psychology consultant. Frequency reports of those questionnaires from universities who used sport psychology consulting services indicated 10 different sport psychology consultant positions; the most often used consultant positions consisted of the part-time consultants hired by individual sport programs (n = 19, 37%), followed by part-time consultants hired by the athletic departments (n = 10, 20%), then full-time consultants hired by the athletic departments (n = 7, 14%). Also reported are the reasons some athletic departments did not use the services of a sport psychology consultant.
Jane Sullivan and Ken P. Hodge
This investigation examined the current use and status of sport psychology in New Zealand. National coaches (n=46) and elite athletes (n=68) completed appropriate questionnaires that assessed their perceptions of sport psychology. They also indicated the importance of and the success they felt they had in changing and/or developing 21 psychological skills. Finally they were asked about their actual use of sport psychology and any problem areas. A general definition of sport psychology was given and sport psychology was rated by both coaches and athletes as being very important. Most coaches and athletes reported using it regularly. A positive response was received, with virtually all coaches and most athletes indicating they would be interested in having a sport psychologist work with them. Implications of the results are discussed and future research and practical recommendations are made.