The purpose of this investigation was to examine male ice hockey players’ (N = 85) perceived legitimacy of aggression and professionalization of attitudes across developmental age and competitive level. Findings were analyzed within the complementary conceptual frameworks of social learning theory, professionalization of attitudes, and moral reasoning. Ice hockey players completed a modified, sport-specific version of the Sport Behavior Inventory and a modified version of the Context Modified Webb scale. Results of the investigation revealed that as players increased in age and competitive level, perceived legitimacy of aggressive behavior increased, and their attitudes about sport became increasingly professionalized. Based on the conceptual framework in which the results are interpreted, intervention services by sport psychology practitioners are explored that are aimed at the athlete, the organization, and influential others.
Amanda Visek and Jack Watson
Marc V. Jones, Andrew M. Lane, Steven R. Bray, Mark Uphill and James Catlin
The present paper outlines the development of a sport-specific measure of precompetitive emotion to assess anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Face, content, factorial, and concurrent validity were examined over four stages. Stage 1 had 264 athletes complete an open-ended questionnaire to identify emotions experienced in sport. The item pool was extended through the inclusion of additional items taken from the literature. In Stage 2 a total of 148 athletes verified the item pool while a separate sample of 49 athletes indicated the extent to which items were representative of the emotions anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Stage 3 had 518 athletes complete a provisional Sport Emotion Questionnaire (SEQ) before competition. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 22-item and 5-fac-tor structure provided acceptable model fit. Results from Stage 4 supported the criterion validity of the SEQ. The SEQ is proposed as a valid measure of precompetitive emotion for use in sport settings.
Joe D. Willis
Sport-specific motive scales were developed for power, achievement, and fear-of failure. Pilot testing resulted in 80 Likert-type items for the three scales, which were administered to 764 males and 253 females. Subjects were junior high to college level athletes representing 17 sports and 22 schools or colleges. Item analysis further reduced the number of items to 40. Alpha reliabilities for the three scales ranged from .76 to .78, whereas test-retest reliabilities after 8 weeks were .69 to .75. Evidence of content, criterion-related, and construct validity was presented. All scales were found to be relatively free of social desirability bias. It was concluded that the use of the scales was justified when confined to the study of groups and for research purposes only.
Richard D. Telford, Edward A. Catchpole, Vicki Deakin, Allan G. Hahn and Ashley W. Plank
The effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation was studied over 7 to 8 months of training and competition in 82 athletes from four sports: basketball, gymnastics, rowing, and swimming. Matched subgroups were formed and a double-blind design used, with subgroups being given either the supplementation or a placebo. All athletes were monitored to ensure that the recommended daily intakes (RDI) of vitamins and minerals were provided by diet alone. Sport-specific and some common tests of strength as well as aerobic and anaerobic fitness were performed. Coaches' assessment of improvement was also obtained. The only significant effect of supplementation was observed in the female basketball players, in which the supplementation was associated with increased body weight, skinfold sum, and jumping ability. A significant increase in skinfold sum was also demonstrated over the whole group as a result of supplementation. In general, however, this study provided little evidence of any effect of supplementation to athletic performance for athletes consuming the dietary RDIs.
Jihoun An and Donna L. Goodwin
This study described the meaning 7 mothers of children with spina bifida ascribed to their children’s physical education, the mothers’ roles in the schools, and the importance of the IEP in home and school communication. The stories of 4 mothers of elementary and 3 mothers of secondary aged children were gathered using the phenomenological methods of semistructured interviews, artifacts, and field notes. The thematic analysis revealed three themes: a good thing but …, connection to sports, and beyond the curriculum. The mothers valued their children’s participation in physical education and provided instrumental support to teachers and teaching associates. They also valued sport as an avenue for developing sport specific skills, which in turn enriched the school experience. The findings are discussed within the context of Peters’ (1996) model of disablement.
Theresa Bianco and Robert C. Eklund
There is an extensive body of research indicating that social support can contribute to health and well-being by reducing exposure to stress and enhancing coping efforts. The mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood, however, and confusion abounds as to the nature of social support. This paper examines some of the major conceptual issues relevant to the study of social support in the context of sport injury. Specific issues addressed include differences between (a) support activities and support messages, (b) perceived support and received support, and (c) support networks, support behaviors, and appraisals of support. The discussion includes an examination of the general and sport-specific social support research. Gaps in the research are identified and suggestions are made throughout the paper for investigating social support issues in sport.
Robert C. Eklund, J. Robert Grove and N. Paul Heard
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate four psychometric models for Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub’s (1989) COPE inventory, and for Crocker and Graham’s (1995) sport-specific modification of the COPE inventory for measurement of individual differences in coping with sport-related stress. Slumping athletic performance (i.e., an extended, unexplained loss of competitive form) was employed as the frame of reference for the coping responses. Data collected from 1,491 athletes (870 for the COPE analyses and 621 for the Modified-COPE analyses) were evaluated in the empirical, double cross-validation design analyses (Cudeck & Browne, 1983). Results revealed a 14-factor model of the COPE inventory and a 10-factor model of the Modified-COPE inventory as the most appropriate psychometric models for these inventories in examining slump-related coping among athletes.
Robin S. Vealey
An interactional, sport-specific model of self-confidence was developed in which sport-confidence was conceptualized into trait (SC-trait) and state (SC-state) components. A competitive orientation construct was also included in the model to account for individual differences in defining success in sport. In order to test the relationship represented in the conceptual model, an instrument to measure SC-trait (Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory or TSCI), an instrument to measure SC-state (State Sport-Confidence Inventory or SSCI), and an instrument to measure competitive orientation (Competitive Orientation Inventory or COI) were developed and validated. Validation procedures included five phases of data collection involving 666 high school, college, and adult athletes. All three instruments demonstrated adequate item discrimination, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, content validity, and concurrent validity. In the construct validation phase, the results supported several predictions based on the conceptual model.
Jennifer L. Kentel and Tara-Leigh F. McHugh
Bullying among youth is rampant and research suggests that young Aboriginal women may be particularly susceptible to bullying.Sport participation has been identified as a possible mechanism to prevent bullying behaviors, yet few researchers have explored bullying within the context of sport. The purpose of this qualitative description study was to explore young Aboriginal women’s experiences of bullying in team sports. Eight young Aboriginal women participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews and follow-up phone interviews.Data were analyzed using a content analysis, and findings were represented by five themes: (1) mean mugging, (2) sport specific, (3) happens all the time, (4) team bonding to address bullying, and (5) prevention through active coaches. The detailed descriptions shared by participants provide insight into a broad range of bullying experiences and serve as a foundation for addressing the bullying that occurs in sport.
Ian D. Boardley and Maria Kavussanu
A sport-specific measure of moral disengagement was developed in 2 studies. In Study 1, a 59-item questionnaire was developed and tested with 308 athletes from 5 team sports. A series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) testing different models suggested the model that best fitted the data had 6 first-order factors that could be represented by 1 second-order factor. Study 2 involved 305 athletes from the same 5 sports. CFA confirmed the 6-factor, second-order structure for the final 32-item measure. Results from Study 2 supported the construct validity of the scale, providing evidence for the factorial, concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity. The Moral Disengagement in Sport Scale (MDSS) is proposed as a valid and reliable measure of moral disengagement for use in the sport context.